Born in 1734

Jan 17 Vincenzo Petagna an Italian biologist and physician, and a director of the Monte Oliveto botanical gardens. The plant Petagnaea gussonei is named in his honour
Jan 17 François-Joseph Gossec a French composer of operas, string quartets, symphonies, and choral works.
Jan 20 Robert Morris (financier) a Liverpool-born American merchant who financed the American Revolution and was signatory to the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. He was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly, became the Chairman of the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety, and was chosen as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, where he served as chairman of the "Secret Committee of Trade" and as a member of the Committee of Correspondence
Jan 20 Charles Alexandre de Calonne a French statesman, best known for his involvement in the French Revolution.
Jan 23 Wolfgang von Kempelen an author and inventor, known for his chess-playing "automaton" hoax The Turk and for his speaking machine.
Feb 13 Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec a Breton explorer and French naval officer.
Feb 15 William Stacy an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and a pioneer to the Ohio Country. Published histories describe Colonel William Stacy's involvement in a variety of events during the war, such as rallying the militia on a village common in Massachusetts, participating in the Battle of Bunker Hill, being captured by Loyalists and American Indians at the Cherry Valley massacre, narrowly escaping a death by burning at the stake, General George Washington's efforts to obtain Stacy's release from captivity, and Washington's gift of a gold snuff box to Stacy at the end of the war
Feb 18 Jean-Marie Roland vicomte de la Platière a French manufacturer in Lyon and became a leader of the Girondist faction in the French Revolution, largely influenced in this direction by his wife, Marie-Jeanne "Manon" Roland de la Platiere. He served as a minister of the interior in King Louis XVI's government in 1792
Feb 27 Karol Stanisław "Panie Kochanku" Radziwiłł a Polish–Lithuanian szlachcic, voivod of Vilnius and starosta of Lwów. He is frequently referred to by his idiolect "Panie Kochanku" to distinguish him from his earlier namesake
Feb 28 Ivan Dmitrevsky generally regarded as the most influential actor of Russian Neoclassicism and "Russia's first great tragedian".
Mar 9 Vicente Antonio García de la Huerta a Spanish dramatist, educated at Salamanca. At Madrid he soon attracted attention by his literary arrogance and handsome person, and at an early age became chief of the National Library, a post from which he was dismissed owing to the intrigues of his numerous enemies. The publication of his unsatisfactory collection of Spanish plays entitled Theatro Hespañol exposed him to severe censures, which appear to have affected his reason. He died at Madrid, without carrying into effect his avowed intention of reviving the national drama. His Agamemnon vengado derives from Sophocles, his faire is translated from Voltaire, and even his once famous Raquel, though Spanish in subject, is classic in form
Mar 9 Francisco Bayeu y Subías an Aragonese painter, active in a Neoclassic style, whose main subjects were religious and historical themes.
Mar 11 Nicholas Repnin an Imperial Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Mar 19 Thomas McKean an American lawyer and politician from New Castle, in New Castle County, Delaware and Philadelphia. During the American Revolution he was a delegate to the Continental Congress where he signed the United States Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. McKean served as a President of Congress. He was at various times a member of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties. McKean served as President of Delaware, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, and Governor of Pennsylvania
Apr 17 Taksin the only King of the Thonburi Kingdom and was of Thai Chinese heritage. He was a leader in the liberation of Siam from Burmese occupation after the Second Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, and the subsequent unification of Siam after it fell under various warlords. He established the city Thonburi as the new capital, as the city Ayutthaya had been almost completely destroyed by the invaders. His reign was characterized by numerous wars, fought to repel new Burmese invasions and to subjugate the northern Thai kingdom of Lanna, the Laotian principalities, and a threatening Cambodia. He was executed and succeeded by his long-time friend King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke who then created the Chakri dynasty and the Rattanakosin Kingdom
Apr 18 Elsa Beata Bunge a Swedish, botanist, writer and noble.
May 1 Sir Joshua Rowley 1st Baronet the fourth son of Admiral Sir William Rowley. Sir Joshua was from an ancient English family, originating in Staffordshire and was born on 1 May 1734 in Dublin Rowley served with distinction in a number of battles throughout his career and was highly praised by his contemporaries. Unfortunately whilst his career was often active he did not have the opportunity to command any significant engagements and always followed rather than led. His achievements have therefore been eclipsed by his contemporaries such as Keppel, Hawke, Howe and Rodney. Rowley however remains one of the stalwart commanders of the wooden walls that kept Britain safe for so long
May 5 François-Jean de Chastellux a military officer who served during the War of American Independence as a major general in the French expeditionary forces led by general Comte de Rochambeau. Being on general Rochambeau's staff for the duration of the war, Chastellux acted as the principal liaison officer between the French commander in chief and George Washington. However the Chevalier de Chastellux was also widely recognized, at the time of his campaigns in America, as a highly talented man of letters and a member of the Académie française
May 23 Franz Mesmer a German physician with an interest in astronomy, who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called animal magnetism, sometimes later referred to as mesmerism. The theory attracted a wide following between about 1780 and 1850, and continued to have some influence until the end of the century. In 1843 the Scottish physician James Braid proposed the term hypnosis for a technique derived from animal magnetism; today this is the usual meaning of mesmerism
Jun 28 Jean-Jacques Beauvarlet-Charpentier a celebrated French organist and composer.
Jul 27 Princess Sophie of France a French princesse du sang. She was the sixth daughter and eighth child of Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Marie Leszczyńska. First known as Madame Cinquième, she later became Madame Sophie
Aug 7 Duchess Maria Anna Josepha of Bavaria a Duchess of Bavaria by birth and Margravine of Baden-Baden by marriage. She was nicknamed the savior of Bavaria. She is also known as Maria Josepha and is sometimes styled as a princess of Bavaria
Aug 8 Frederick Augustus Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst a German prince of the House of Ascania and the last ruler of the Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Aug 10 Naungdawgyi king of Konbaung Dynasty of Burma from 1760 to 1763. He was a top military commander in his father Alaungpaya's reunification campaigns of the country. As king, he spent much of his short reign suppressing multiple rebellions across the newly founded kingdom from Ava and Toungoo to Martaban and Chiang Mai. The king suddenly died less than a year after he had successfully suppressed the rebellions. He was succeeded by his younger brother Hsinbyushin
Aug 31 Gaetano Gandolfi an Italian painter of the late Baroque and early Neoclassic period, active in Bologna.
Sep 3 Joseph Wright of Derby None
Sep 5 Jean-Benjamin de La Borde a French composer, writer on music and fermier générale. Born into an aristocratic family, he studied violin under Antoine Dauvergne and composition under Jean-Philippe Rameau. From 1762 to 1774, he served at the court of Louis XV as premier valet de la chambre, losing his post on the death of the king. He wrote many operas, mostly comic, and a four-volume collection of songs for solo voice, Choix de chansons mises en musique illustrated by Jean-Michel Moreau. Many of the songs from the collection were later published individually through the efforts of the English folksong collector Lucy Etheldred Broadwood. His Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne was published in 1780. La Borde was guillotined during the French Revolution in 1794
Sep 17 Jean-Baptiste Le Prince an important French etcher and painter. Le Prince first studied painting techniques in his native Metz. He then travelled to Paris around 1750 and became a leading student of the great painter, François Boucher. Le Prince's early paintings in both theme and style are comparable to his master's rococo techniques
Sep 17 Elizabeth Canning an English maidservant who claimed to have been kidnapped and held against her will in a hayloft for almost a month. She ultimately became central to one of the most famous English criminal mysteries of the 18th century
Sep 25 Cardinal de Rohan a French bishop of Strasbourg, politician, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, and cadet of the Rohan family. His parents were Hercule Mériadec, Prince of Guéméné and Louise Gabrielle Julie de Rohan. He was born in Paris
Oct 7 Ralph Abercromby a Scottish soldier and politician. He rose to the rank of lieutenant-general in the British Army, was noted for his services during the Napoleonic Wars, and served as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Oct 23 Nicolas-Edme Rétif a French novelist. The term retifism for shoe fetishism was named after him
Oct 24 Anna Göldi known as the "last witch" in Switzerland. She was executed for murder in June 1782 in Glarus
Nov 2 Daniel Boone an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky, which was then part of Virginia but on the other side of the mountains from the settled areas. As a young adult Boone supplemented his farm income by hunting and trapping game, and selling their pelts in the fur market. It was through this occupational interest that Boone first learned the easy routes to the area. Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775 Boone blazed his Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Mountains from North Carolina and Tennessee into Kentucky. There he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 European people migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone
Nov 27 Johann Euler a Swiss-Russian astronomer and mathematician. Also known as Johann Albert Euler or John-Albert Euler, he was the first child born to the great Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler who had emigrated to Saint-Petersburg on 17 May 1727. His mother was Katharina Gsell whose maternal grandmother was the famous scientific illustrator Maria Sibylla Merian and whose father was the Swiss Baroque painter Georg Gsell who had emigrated to Russia in 1716. Katharina married Leonhard Euler on 7 January 1734 and Johann Albert would be the eldest of their 13 children
Dec 1 Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski an influential Polish noble, writer, literary and theater critic, linguist, traveller and statesman. He was a great patron of arts and a candidate for the Polish crown. He was educated in England and after his return to Poland in 1758, he became a member of the Sejm , Crown General of Podolia and Marshal of General Confederation of Kingdom of Poland
Dec 7 Joachim Christian Timm an apothecary, mayor of Malchin, and a botanist with a particular interest in cryptograms. This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Timm when citing a botanical name
Dec 8 Raghunathrao Peshwa of the Maratha Empire from 1773 to 1774. He was instrumental in the downfall of the Peshwa clan
Dec 11 Paul Joseph Barthez a French physician, physiologist, and encyclopedist who developed a take on the biological theory known as vitalism.
Dec 14 Oluf Gerhard Tychsen a German Orientalist and Hebrew scholar. He is known today as one of the founding fathers of Islamic numismatics
Dec 17 Maria I of Portugal Queen of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves. Known as Maria the Pious , or Maria the Mad , she was the first undisputed Queen regnant of Portugal. With Napoleon's European conquests, her court, then under the direction of Prince Dom João, the Prince Regent, moved to the then Portuguese colony of Brazil. Later on, Brazil would be elevated from the rank of a colony to that of a Kingdom, with the consequential formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Dec 18 Jean-Baptiste Rey a French conductor and composer.
Dec 21 Francisco Manoel de Nascimento the reputed son of a Lisbon boat-owner.
Dec 26 George Romney (painter) an English portrait painter. He was the most fashionable artist of his day, painting many leading society figures - including his artistic muse, Emma Hamilton, mistress of Lord Nelson