Born in 1737

Jan 3 Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg a German poet and critic.
Jan 4 Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau a French chemist and politician. He is credited with producing the first systematic method of chemical nomenclature
Jan 19 Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre a French writer and botanist. He is best known for his 1788 novel Paul et Virginie, now largely forgotten, but in the 19th century a very popular children's book
Jan 19 Giuseppe Millico best remembered for his performances in the operas of Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Jan 23 John Hancock a merchant, smuggler, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence, drawn so that King George III would be able to read the Hancock name; so much so that the term "John Hancock" has become, in the United States, a synonym for a signature
Feb 9 Thomas Paine an English and American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary. As the author of the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he inspired the rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of transnational human rights. He has been called "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination"
Feb 22 Friedrich Adolf Count von Kalckreuth a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall.
Feb 25 August Wilhelm Hupel a Baltic German publicist, estophile and linguist.
Mar 9 Josef Mysliveček a Czech composer who contributed to the formation of late eighteenth-century classicism in music. Mysliveček provided his younger friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with significant compositional models in the genres of symphony, Italian serious opera, and violin concerto; both Wolfgang and his father Leopold Mozart considered him an intimate friend from the time of their first meetings in Bologna in 1770 until he betrayed their trust over the promise of an operatic commission for Wolfgang to be arranged with the management of the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. He was close to the Mozart family, and there are frequent references to him in the Mozart correspondence
Mar 15 Amarindra Queen Amarindra ,was the Queen Consort of King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke , the founder of the Chakri Dynasty. Her birth name was Nak. She was a daughter of a wealthy Mon from Bang Chang, in Samut Songkhram Province
Mar 20 Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke the founder and the first monarch of the reigning House of Chakri of Siam. His full title is Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramoruraja Maha Chakri Borommanat Phraphutthayotfa Chulalok. He ascended the throne in 1782, after defeating a rebellion which had deposed King Taksin of Thonburi. He was also celebrated as the founder of Rattanakosin as the new capital of the reunited kingdom. Rama I was born from a Mon family where his father served in the royal court in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, and had served King Taksin in wars against the Burmese Konbaung dynasty and helped him in the reunification of Siam. During this time he emerged as Siam's most powerful military leader. In 1782, he took control of Siam and crowned himself as the monarch
Apr 10 Sir George Staunton 1st Baronet an employee of the East India Company and a botanist.
Apr 27 Edward Gibbon an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788. The Decline and Fall is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, and its open criticism of organised religion
May 2 William Petty 2nd Earl of Shelburne generally known to history, was an Irish-born British Whig statesman who was the first Home Secretary in 1782 and then Prime Minister 1782–1783 during the final months of the American War of Independence. He succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his most notable legacy. He was also well known as a collector of antiquities and works of art
May 7 Iosif Igelström a Russian general from the noble Swedish family of Igelström.
May 14 George Macartney 1st Earl Macartney an Irish-born British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. He is often remembered for his observation following Britain's success in the Seven Years War and subsequent territorial expansion at the Treaty of Paris that Britain now controlled "a vast Empire, on which the sun never sets"
May 22 Tethart Philipp Christian Haag a Dutch artist. He was born at Kassel in Germany
Jun 2 Ernest Augustus II Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Jun 10 Ruth Blay executed by hanging after being convicted of concealing the body of her illegitimate child in the floor of the barn next to the house in which she was staying. She was granted 3 reprieves before the execution. Blay was the last female executed by New Hampshire
Jun 20 Tokugawa Ieharu the tenth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office from 1760 to 1786.
Jun 29 Platon Levshin the Metropolitan of Moscow from 1775 to 1812. He personifies the Age of Enlightenment in the Russian Orthodox Church
Jul 15 Princess Louise of France (1737–1787) the youngest of the ten children of Louis XV and his wife, Maria Leszczyńska. As a daughter of the king, she held the rank of a fille de France. From 1740 she was known as Madame Louise
Jul 26 Georg Melchior Kraus a German painter. A student of Johann Heinrich Tischbein, he was also a teacher himself , as well as an entrepreneur and friend of Goethe. He was a co-founder of the Fürstliche freie Zeichenschule Weimar with Friedrich Justin Bertuch in 1776
Jul 31 Princess Augusta of Great Britain a granddaughter of George II and only elder sibling of George III. She married into the ducal house of Brunswick, of which she was already a member. Her daughter Caroline was the wife of George IV
Aug 5 Johann Friedrich Struensee a German doctor. He became royal physician to the mentally ill King Christian VII of Denmark and a minister in the Danish government. He rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda caused scandal, especially after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, and was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death. He died unmarried
Aug 10 Anton Losenko a Ukrainian neoclassical painter and academician who lived in Imperial Russia and who specialized in historical subjects and portraits. He was one of the founders of the Imperial Russian historical movement in painting
Aug 12 Antoine-Augustin Parmentier remembered as a vocal promoter of the potato as a food source for humans in France and throughout Europe. His many other contributions to nutrition and health included establishing the first mandatory smallpox vaccination campaign and pioneering the extraction of sugar from sugar beets. Parmentier also founded a school of breadmaking, and studied methods of conserving food, including refrigeration
Aug 25 Jacek Małachowski a Polish nobleman, politician and administrator.
Aug 29 John Hunter (Royal Navy officer) an officer of the Royal Navy, who succeeded Arthur Phillip as the second governor of New South Wales, Australia and served as such from 1795 to 1800.
Sep 9 Luigi Galvani an Italian physician, physicist and philosopher who lived and died in Bologna. In 1780, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by an electrical spark.:67–71 This was one of the first forays into the study of bioelectricity, a field that still studies the electrical patterns and signals of the nervous system
Sep 14 Michael Haydn an Austrian composer of the Classical period, the younger brother of Joseph Haydn.
Sep 15 Jacob Philipp Hackert a landscape painter from Brandenburg, who did most of his work in Italy.
Sep 19 Charles Carroll of Carrollton a wealthy Maryland planter and an early advocate of independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and Confederation Congress and later as first United States Senator for Maryland. He was the only Catholic and the longest-lived signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying at the age of 95, at his city mansion in Baltimore's neighborhood of Jonestown on East Lombard and South Front Streets, by the Jones Falls
Sep 30 Morten Thrane Brünnich a Danish zoologist and mineralogist.
Oct 2 Francis Hopkinson one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New Jersey. He later served as a federal judge in Pennsylvania. He played a key role in the design of the first American flag
Oct 5 Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great.
Oct 21 Marie-Louise O'Murphy one of the younger mistresses of King Louis XV of France. Her original surname is also given in sources as Murphy, Morphy, or O'Morphy, and she is sometimes referred to as "La Morphise" or "La Belle Morphise"
Oct 22 Vincenzo Manfredini an Italian composer, harpsichordist and a music theorist.
Oct 31 James Lovell (Continental Congress) an American educator and statesman from Boston, Massachusetts. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress from 1777 to 1782. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation
Nov 7 Johann Eleazar Zeissig a German genre, portrait and porcelain painter, and engraver; director of the Royal Academy of Arts in Dresden.
Nov 8 Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux a French naval officer, explorer and colonial governor. He is perhaps best known for his exploration of the Australian coast in 1792, while searching for the La Pérouse expedition. Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux is commonly referred to simply as Bruni d'Entrecasteaux or Bruny d'Entrecasteaux, which is a compound surname
Nov 23 Ali Mirza of Kakheti a prince of the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty of the Kingdom of Kakheti who ruled in eastern Georgian provinces – Kartli and Kakheti – for the shah of Iran in the late 1730s. Like his father, King David II , and brothers, Ali-Mirza was a convert to Islam. As a ruler of Kakheti, he is sometimes known in modern historiography by his Christian name Alexander and ascribed the regnal number "Third". Despite his power being derived from the shah, Ali Mirza followed the established Georgian tradition to style himself as "king of kings"
Dec 14 Maximilian Anton Karl Count Baillet de Latour a general in Austrian service during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Dec 26 Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a general in the Austrian service.