Born in 1738

Jan 21 Ethan Allen a farmer; businessman; land speculator; philosopher; writer; and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with Benedict Arnold
Feb 4 Joachim Wilhelm von Brawe a German poet from Weißenfels.
Feb 6 Pierre-Joseph Desault a French anatomist and surgeon.
Feb 21 Franz Ludwig von Cancrin a German mineralogist, metallurgist, architect and writer.
Mar 11 Benjamin Tupper a soldier in the French and Indian War, and an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, achieving the rank of brevet brigadier general. Subsequently, he served as a Massachusetts legislator, and he assisted Gen. William Shepard in stopping Shays' Rebellion. Benjamin Tupper was a co-founder of the Ohio Company of Associates, and was a pioneer to the Ohio Country, involved in establishing Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent settlement in the Northwest Territory
Mar 15 Cesare Beccaria an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments , which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology. He promoted criminal justice
Mar 16 Józef Kossakowski (bishop) a Polish noble , bishop of Livonia from 1781, political activist, writer, and supporter of Russian Empire.
Apr 14 William Cavendish-Bentinck 3rd Duke of Portland a British Whig and Tory statesman, Chancellor of the University of Oxford, Prime Minister of Great Britain, serving in 1783 and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1807 to 1809. The 24 years between his two terms as Prime Minister is the longest gap between terms of office of any Prime Minister. He was known before 1762 by the courtesy title Marquess of Titchfield. He held a title of every degree of British nobility—Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron. He is also a great-great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II through her maternal grandmother
Apr 22 Margravine Elisabeth Louise of Brandenburg-Schwedt a Prussian princess. She was a daughter of Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt and his wife Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia
May 5 Adolphus Frederick IV Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz a Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
May 11 George Collier an officer of the Royal Navy who saw service during the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. As commander of the frigate HMS Rainbow, he was one of the most successful British naval commanders during the opening stages of war with America. He achieved considerable success as one of the senior officers on the North American coast, conducting and organizing several highly effective raids and counter-strikes. He was superseded however, and returned to Britain to play a role in the closing events of the war in European waters, before moving ashore to start a political career. He enjoyed a brief return to service with the resumption of war with France, and achieved flag rank, but died shortly afterwards
May 19 Mikhail Kamensky a Russian Field Marshal prominent in the Catherinian wars and the Napoleonic campaigns.
May 27 Nathaniel Gorham a politician and merchant from Massachusetts. He was a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, and for six months served as the presiding officer of that body. He also attended the Constitutional Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
May 28 Joseph-Ignace Guillotin a French physician who proposed on 10 October 1789 the use of a device to carry out death penalties in France, as a less painful method of execution. While he did not invent the guillotine, and in fact opposed the death penalty, his name became an eponym for The actual inventor of the prototype was Antoine Louis
May 31 Stanislas de Boufflers a French statesman and writer.
Jun 4 George III of the United Kingdom King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two Hanoverian predecessors he was born in Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover
Jun 10 Hubert Maurer an Austrian painter, draughtsman, and teacher.
Jun 12 Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich a general of the Austrian Empire. Feldmarschall-Lieutenant and Commander of the Order of Maria Theresa. He played a major role in several battles against the French Army of Italy led by Napoleon during the French Revolutionary Wars
Jun 16 Mary Katherine Goddard an early American publisher and the first American postmistress. She was the first to print the Declaration of Independence with the names of the signatories
Jun 21 Gottlieb Christoph Harless a German classical scholar and bibliographer.
Jun 22 Jacques Delille a French poet and translator. He was born at Aigueperse in Auvergne and died in Paris
Jun 27 László Skultéty the longest serving Hungarian Hussar in Hungarian history. He served 81 years as a cavalryman before his retirement. He volunteered for the Ghilányi Hussar regiment when he was 12. Skultéty served under András Hadik during the Seven Years' War, and participated in the capture of the Prussian capital, Berlin. He died at the age of 93. His tomb was renovated in 1898, when citizens of Arad erected an obelisk
Jul 2 Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu a French explorer, hydrographer and politician. He was Minister of the Navy under Louis XVI, and a member of the Institut de France, as well as the brother of the botanist Marc Antoine Louis Claret de la Tourette
Jul 3 Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Leistenau a German noble woman.
Jul 11 Albert Casimir Duke of Teschen a German prince from the House of Wettin who married into the Habsburg imperial family. He was noted as an art collector and founded the Albertina in Vienna, the largest and finest collection of old master prints and drawings in the world
Jul 15 Jacques-André Naigeon a French artist, atheist philosopher, editor and man of letters best known for his contributions to the Encyclopédie and for reworking Baron d'Holbach's and Diderot's manuscripts.
Aug 1 Jacques François Dugommier a French general.
Aug 14 Leopold Hofmann an Austrian composer of classical music.
Aug 16 Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq a Prussian cavalry general best known for his command of the Prussian troops at the Battle of Eylau.
Aug 22 John Courtenay (1738–1816) an Irish officer in the British Army who became a politician in England. He was a Member of Parliament at Westminster from 1780 to 1807, and again in 1812
Aug 29 Aleijadinho a Colonial Brazil-born sculptor and architect, noted for his works on and in various churches of Brazil.
Sep 25 Nicholas Van Dyke (governor) an American lawyer and politician from New Castle, in New Castle County, Delaware. He served in the Delaware General Assembly, as a Continental Congressman from Delaware, and as President of Delaware
Oct 6 Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour a French art critic, mathematician, financier, and essayist. He was the son of the mathematician Jacques Mathon de la Cour
Oct 6 Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1738–1789) the second but eldest surviving daughter of Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Oct 10 Benjamin West an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence. He was the second president of the Royal Academy in London, serving from 1792 to 1805 and 1806 to 1820. He was offered a knighthood by the British Crown, but declined it, believing that he should instead be made a peer
Oct 11 Arthur Phillip the first Governor of New South Wales and founder of the settlement which became Sydney.
Oct 18 Andrey Bolotov the most prolific memoirist and the most distinguished agriculturist of the 18th-century Russian Empire.
Oct 28 Ludwik Szymon Gutakowski the second Prime Minister of Poland, and the President of the Council of State and of the Cabinet.
Nov 15 William Herschel a German-born British astronomer, composer, and brother of Caroline Herschel. Born in the Electorate of Hanover, Herschel followed his father into the Military Band of Hanover, before migrating to Great Britain at the age of nineteen
Nov 25 Thomas Abbt a German mathematician and writer.
Dec 2 Richard Montgomery an Irish-born soldier who first served in the British Army. He later became a Major General in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is most famous for leading the failed 1775 invasion of Canada
Dec 14 Jan Antonín Koželuh a renowned Bohemian composer from Velvary. He was a pupil of Josef Seger. He studied in Vienna and was a concert master in Vitus Cathedral for thirty years; his work includes both church and concert works. As one of the most respected Czech authors of his time, he also composed serious Italian opera: Allesandro nell' Indie was performed in 1769 and Demofoonte in 1772. He was the organist at the Strahov Monastery for almost forty years
Dec 20 Claude Michel a French sculptor in the Rococo style.
Dec 31 William Medows an Englishman and a general in the British Army.
Dec 31 Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis a British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America. He also served as a civil and military governor in Ireland and India; in both places he brought about significant changes, including the Act of Union in Ireland, and the Cornwallis Code and the Permanent Settlement in India
Dec 31 Johann Hermann a French physician and naturalist.