Died in 1738

Jan 6 Jean-Baptiste Labat a French clergyman, botanist, writer, explorer, ethnographer, soldier, engineer, and landowner.
Jan 6 Franz Xaver Murschhauser a German composer and theorist.
Jan 17 Jean-François Dandrieu a French Baroque composer, harpsichordist and organist.
Feb 4 Joseph Süß Oppenheimer a German Jewish banker and Court Jew for Duke Karl Alexander of Württemberg in Stuttgart. He was a nephew and stepson of the banker Samuel Oppenheimer, diplomat and Shtadlan to Kaiser Leopold of Austria
Feb 12 James Sherard an English apothecary, botanist, and amateur musician. He was born in Bushby, Leicestershire to George and Mary Sherwood; it is unknown why his surname was changed. His older brother, William, also became a noted botanist. James Sherard may have been educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood, which his brother attended, but his name is nowhere to be found in the published list of students. On 7 February 1682, apothecary Charles Watts, who served as curator of Chelsea Physic Garden, took him in as an apprentice. After honing his craft with Watts, Sherard moved to Mark Lane, London, where he started his own business
Feb 15 Matthias Braun a sculptor and carver active in the Czech lands, one of the most prominent late baroque style sculptors in the area.
Feb 16 Carel de Moor a Dutch Golden Age etcher and painter. He was a pupil of Gerard Dou
Mar 16 George Bähr a German architect.
Mar 25 Turlough O'Carolan due to his gift for melodic composition.
May 1 Charles Howard 3rd Earl of Carlisle a British statesman and member of the peerage of England.
May 12 Charles III William Margrave of Baden-Durlach Margrave of Baden-Durlach between 1709 and 1738. He was the son of Margrave Frederick Magnus of Baden-Durlach and Augusta Maria of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. In 1715, he established Karlsruhe , where he built his residence. Karlsruhe has since grown to a large city. With the consolidation of public finances and the creation of a reliable administration, he laid the foundations for the reform policies of his grandson, Charles Frederick
Jun 2 James Fitz-James Stuart 2nd Duke of Berwick a Jacobite and Spanish nobleman. He inherited titles in the Jacobite and Spanish nobility on the death of his father in battle in 1734 at Philippsburg, , during the War of the Polish Succession. He was also Consort Duke of Veragua and of la Vega and a Consort-Marquis of four further titles by his Spanish marriage in 1716. His full title was 2nd Duke of Berwick, 2nd Earl of Tinmouth, 2nd Baron Bosworth, 2nd Duke of Liria and Xerica, Grandee of Spain 1st class , Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece , as well as the holder of several earldoms
Jun 4 Naum Senyavin a Vice Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy.
Jun 5 Isaac de Beausobre a French Protestant churchman, now best known for his history of Manichaeism, Histoire Critique de Manichée et du Manichéisme in two volumes.
Jun 11 Caspar Bartholin the Younger a Danish anatomist who first described the "Bartholin's gland" in the 17th century.
Jun 17 Sava Vladislavich a Serbian diplomat, count and merchant-adventurer in the employ of Peter the Great who conducted important diplomatic negotiations in Constantinople, Rome and Beijing. His most lasting achievement was the Treaty of Kiakhta, which regulated relations between the Russian Empire and the Qing Empire until the mid-19th century. Also, he was an author of a whole number of pamphlets, monographs, treaties and letters concerned with liberating the lands of the Slavs, then occupied by the Ottoman Empire and the forces of Leopold I
Jun 21 Charles Townshend 2nd Viscount Townshend a British Whig statesman. He served for a decade as Secretary of State, directing British foreign policy. He was often known as Turnip Townshend because of his strong interest in farming turnips and his role in the British agricultural revolution
Jul 28 Heinrich Duke of Saxe-Merseburg a duke of Saxe-Merseburg and member of the House of Wettin.
Aug 17 Francesco Barberini (1662–1738) an Italian Cardinal of the family of Pope Urban VIII and of the Princes of Palestrina.
Aug 29 Georg Reutter an Austrian organist, theorbo player and composer.
Aug 29 Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Homburg a German noblewoman member of the House of Hesse and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Weimar.
Sep 23 Herman Boerhaave a Dutch botanist, Christian humanist and physician of European fame. He is regarded as the founder of clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital and is sometimes referred to as "the father of physiology," along with his pupil Albrecht von Haller. He is best known for demonstrating the relation of symptoms to lesions and, in addition, he was the first to isolate the chemical urea from urine. His motto was Simplex sigillum veri; Simplicity is the sign of truth
Dec 12 Teodor Andrzej Potocki a Polish nobleman , Primate of Poland, interrex in 1733.
Dec 22 Jean-Joseph Mouret a French composer whose dramatic works made him one of the leading exponents of Baroque music in his country. Even though most of his works are no longer performed, Mouret's name survives today thanks to the popularity of the Fanfare-Rondeau from his first Suite de symphonies, which has been adopted as the signature tune of the PBS program Masterpiece and is a popular musical choice in many modern weddings
Dec 22 Constantia Jones a prostitute in London, UK during the term of Prime Minister Robert Walpole, who was sentenced to hang for stealing 36 shillings and a half-guinea from one of her clients. Her accuser, describing her as "a three-penny upright," testified as follows: "As I stood against the Wall, came behind me, and with one hand she took hold of... --and the other she thrust into my Breeches Pocket and took my Money." Based on this testimony, Jones was sentenced to hang at Tyburn