Born in 1741

Jan 1 Johan Adam Pollich a German doctor, botanist and entomologist.
Jan 6 Sarah Trimmer a writer and critic of 18th-century British children's literature, as well as an educational reformer. Her periodical, The Guardian of Education, helped to define the emerging genre by seriously reviewing children's literature for the first time; it also provided the first history of children's literature, establishing a canon of the early landmarks of the genre that scholars still use today. Trimmer's most popular children's book, Fabulous Histories, inspired numerous children's animal stories and remained in print for over a century
Jan 10 Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain a member of the British Royal Family, a grandchild of George II and sister of George III.
Jan 14 Benedict Arnold a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fortifications at West Point, New York , overlooking the cliffs at the Hudson River , and planned to surrender it to the British forces. After the plan was exposed in September 1780, he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general
Jan 17 Princesse Moustache a Russian lady in waiting, socialite and noble and Dame of the Order of Catherine's first degree.
Jan 20 Carl Linnaeus the Younger a Swedish naturalist. He is known as Linnaeus filius to distinguish him from his famous father, the systematist Carl Linnaeus
Jan 27 Hester Thrale a British diarist, author, and patron of the arts. Her diaries and correspondence are an important source of information about Samuel Johnson and 18th-century life
Jan 31 Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder a German satirical and humorous writer.
Feb 4 Alexander Vorontsov the Russian imperial chancellor during the early years of Alexander I's reign.
Feb 7 Henry Fuseli a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain. Many of his works, such as The Nightmare deal with supernatural subject-matter. He painted works for John Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery, and created his own "Milton Gallery". He held the posts of Professor of Painting and Keeper at the Royal Academy. His style had a considerable influence on many younger British artists, including William Blake
Feb 8 André Grétry a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège , who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took French nationality. He is most famous for his opéras comiques
Feb 9 Henri-Joseph Rigel a German-born composer of the Classical era who spent most of his working life in France. He was born in Wertheim am Main where his father was musical intendant to the local prince. After an education in Germany, where his teachers included Niccolò Jommelli, Rigel moved to Paris in 1767. He quickly acquired a reputation in musical circles and published harpsichord pieces, string quartets, symphonies and concertos. He began composing for the Concert Spirituel, most notably four hiérodrames : La sortie d'Egypte , La destruction de Jericho , Jephté and Les Macchabées. These show the influence of Christoph Willibald Gluck, and Gluck himself praised La sortie d'Égypte. Between 1778 and 1799 Rigel also wrote 14 operas, including the opéra comique Le savetier et le financier
Feb 19 Gottlieb Stephanie an Austrian playwright, director and librettist, most famously to Mozart. Stephanie was born in Breslau, Prussia, but came to Vienna during the Seven Years' War as a Prussian prisoner of war. He was appointed to head the National Singspiel, a favourite project of Emperor Joseph He died in Vienna, aged 58
Mar 4 Casimiro Gómez Ortega a Spanish physician, and botanist who was the First Professor of the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid. Under Charles III of Spain Gómez de Ortega directed the formation of the Royal Botanical Garden as a place, in particular, to collect and study the new species of plants being identified by European explorers. Gómez de Ortega published extensively on plant species, and on the economic botany of plants collected during Spanish sponsored explorations of South America
Mar 13 Joseph II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, and was the brother of Marie Antoinette. He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in an ultimate failure to fully implement his programmes. He has been ranked, with Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia, as one of the three great Enlightenment monarchs. His policies are now known as Josephinism. He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold
Mar 16 Carlo Amoretti an ecclesiastic, scholar, writer, and scientist. He entered the Augustinian order in 1757. To further his studies, he went to Pavia and Parma where he also taught ecclesiastical law
Mar 17 William Withering an English botanist, geologist, chemist, physician and the discoverer of digitalis.
Mar 25 Jean-Antoine Houdon a French neoclassical sculptor.
Mar 28 Johann André a German musician, composer and music publisher. He was born and died in Offenbach am Main
Apr 1 George Dance the Younger an English architect and surveyor and a portraitist. The fifth and youngest son of the architect George Dance the Elder, he came from a family of architects, artists and dramatists. He was described by Sir John Summerson as "among the few really outstanding architects of the century", but few of his buildings remain
Apr 6 Nicolas Chamfort a French writer, best known for his witty epigrams and aphorisms. He was secretary to Louis XVI's sister, and of the Jacobin club
Apr 14 Emperor Momozono the 116th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Apr 15 Charles Willson Peale an American painter, soldier and naturalist. He is best remembered for his portrait paintings of leading figures of the American Revolution, as well as for establishing one of the first museums
Apr 17 Samuel Chase an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and earlier was a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. Early in life, Chase was a "firebrand" states-righter and revolutionary. His political views changed over his lifetime, and, in the last decades of his career, he became well known as a staunch Federalist and was impeached for allegedly letting his partisan leanings affect his court decisions
May 14 Christian Schkuhr a German gardener, artist and botanist.
May 23 Andrea Luchesi an Italian composer.
Jun 11 Joseph Warren an American doctor who played a leading role in American Patriot organizations in Boston in early days of the American Revolution, eventually serving as president of the revolutionary Massachusetts Provincial Congress. Warren enlisted Paul Revere and William Dawes on April 18, 1775, to leave Boston and spread the alarm that the British garrison in Boston was setting out to raid the town of Concord and arrest rebel leaders John Hancock and Samuel Adams. Warren participated in the next day's Battles of Lexington and Concord, which are commonly considered to be the opening engagements of the American Revolutionary War
Jun 21 Prince Benedetto Duke of Chablais a prince of Savoy and Duke of Chablais. He was born in the reign of his father Charles Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia. He has no descendants but had a distinguished military career. He married his niece and was the owner of the Palazzo Chiablese in Turin
Jun 24 Alexander Adam a Scottish teacher and writer on Roman antiquities.
Jul 26 Catherine Antonovna of Brunswick daughter of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick and Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia. Born a few days before the desposition of her brother Ivan VI, she was imprisoned by Empress Elizabeth of Russia along with her family from 1742 to 1780 at Kholmogory, and in 1780, she and two brothers and a sister were placed under house arrest for the rest of their lives in Horsens. She was the last descendant of Ivan V of Russia
Jul 27 François-Hippolyte Barthélémon a French violinist, pedagogue, and composer active in England.
Aug 22 Charles Clerke an officer in the Royal Navy who sailed on four voyages of exploration, 3 with Captain James Cook. When Cook was killed during his 3rd expedition to the Pacific, Clerke took command but died later in the voyage from tuberculosis
Aug 23 Jean-François de Galaup comte de Lapérouse a French Navy officer and explorer whose expedition vanished in Oceania.
Aug 25 Karl Friedrich Bahrdt considered by some as one of the most immoral characters in German learning.
Aug 31 Jean-Paul-Égide Martini a composer of classical music. Sometimes known as Martini Il Tedesco, he is best known today for the vocal romance "Plaisir d'amour," on which the 1961 Elvis Presley pop standard "Can't Help Falling in Love" is based. He is sometimes referred to as Giovanni Martini, resulting in a confusion with Giovanni Battista Martini, particularly with regard to the composition "Plaisir d'amour"'
Sep 11 Arthur Young (agriculturist) an English writer on agriculture, economics, social statistics, and campaigner for the rights of agricultural workers.
Sep 22 Peter Simon Pallas a German zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia.
Sep 25 Wenzel Pichl a classical Czech composer of the 18th Century. He was also a violinist, music director and writer
Oct 2 Johann Christian von Mannlich a German painter and architect.
Oct 4 Franciszek Karpiński the leading sentimental Polish poet of the Age of Enlightenment. He is particularly remembered for his religious works later rendered as hymns and carols. He is also considered one of the most original Polish writers of the early partitions. In his native Poland he was cherished during the Polish Romantic Period of the early 19th century
Oct 10 Charles II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ruler of the state of Mecklenburg-Strelitz from 1794 until his death. Originally ruling as duke, he was raised to the rank of grand duke in 1815. Prior to succeeding to the throne he served as Governor of Hanover from 1776 to 1786
Oct 18 Pierre Choderlos de Laclos a French novelist, official and army general, best known for writing the epistolary novel Les Liaisons Dangereuses.
Oct 30 Angelica Kauffman a Swiss-born Austrian Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome. Though born as "Kauffmann", Kauffman is the preferred spelling of her name in English; it is the form she herself used most in signing her correspondence, documents and paintings
Nov 2 Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol a Dutch nobleman who played a prominent role in the formation of the Batavian Republic and the revolutionary events that preceded its formation. As a member of the Patriots and inspired by the American Revolution, he wrote the noted pamphlet "To the People of the Netherlands" , in which reclaimed a more liberal society and the end of the Stadtholder regime, which had been marked by corruption and nepotism. He was also an ardent supporter in the legal recognition of the recently created United States of America
Nov 2 Pierre Pigneau de Behaine a French Catholic priest best known for his role in assisting Nguyễn Ánh to establish the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam after the Tây Sơn rebellion.
Nov 9 Alessandro Verri an Italian author.
Nov 15 Johann Kaspar Lavater a Swiss poet and physiognomist.
Nov 21 Cristfried Ganander a Finnish compiler of folk culture, a priest and an 18th-century lexicographer. Ganander's greatest achievement was the compilation of the first fully extensive Finnish-language dictionary which was, however, unpublished. He was also a collector of folk culture well before Elias Lönnrot. His most well-known published work is Mythologia Fennica in 1789, a reference book of folk religion. He also published some poetry and worked as a teacher
Dec 8 Paul Dietrich Giseke a German botanist, physician, teacher and librarian.
Dec 18 Maximilien Gardel a French ballet dancer and choreographer of German descent. He was the son of Claude Gardel, ballet master to king Stanisław Leszczyński, and elder brother of Pierre Gardel