Born in 1742

Feb 12 Nana Fadnavis an influential minister and statesman of the Maratha Empire during the Peshwa administration in Pune, India. James Grant Duff states that he was called "the Marattha Machiavelli" by the Europeans
Mar 19 Túpac Amaru II the leader of an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish in Peru. Although unsuccessful, he later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement and an inspiration to myriad causes in Peru
Mar 25 William Combe a British miscellaneous writer. His early life was that of an adventurer, his later was passed chiefly within the "rules" of the King's Bench Prison. He is chiefly remembered as the author of The Three Tours of Syntax, a comic poem satirising William Sawrey Gilpin. His cleverest piece of work was a series of imaginary letters, supposed to have been written by the second, or "wicked" Lord Lyttelton. Of a similar kind were his letters between Swift and "Stella". He also wrote the letterpress for various illustrated books, and was a general hack
Mar 28 Pierre Paul Nicolas Henrion de Pansey a French jurist and politician. He was briefly Minister of Justice in the French provisional government of 1814 formed after the defeat of Napoleon. He was one of the presidents of the Court of Cassation, a final court of appeal in France. He wrote several major works on jurisprudence
Apr 1 Bon-Joseph Dacier a French historian, philologist and translator from ancient Greek. He became a Chevalier de l'Empire , then Baron de l'Empire. He also served as curator of the Bibliothèque nationale
Apr 3 Eugène Louis Melchior Patrin a French mineralogist and naturalist.
Apr 24 Richard Crosse a leading English painter of portrait miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, Richard Cosway and William Wood
Apr 28 Henry Dundas 1st Viscount Melville a Scottish advocate and Tory politician. He was the first Secretary of State for War and became, in 1806, the last person to be impeached in the United Kingdom, for misappropriation of public money. Although acquitted, he never held public office again
May 6 Jean Senebier a Swiss pastor who wrote many works on vegetable physiology.
May 8 Jean-Baptiste Krumpholz a Czech composer and harpist.
May 13 Maria Christina Duchess of Teschen the fourth daughter and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was Governor of the Austrian Netherlands from 1781 until 1793. She was an older sister of Marie Antoinette
Jun 2 Eugenius Johann Christoph Esper a German entomologist. Born in Wunsiedel in Bavaria, he was professor of zoology at Erlangen university
Jun 4 Ignacio Jordán Claudio de Asso y del Río a Spanish diplomat, naturalist, lawyer and historian. He sometimes used the pseudonym of Melchor de Azagra
Jun 8 August Wilhelm Knoch a German naturalist born in Braunschweig. He was a professor of physics at Collegium Carolinum
Jun 28 William Hooper an American lawyer, physician, politician, and a member of the Continental Congress representing North Carolina from 1774 through 1777. Hooper was also a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, along with fellow North Carolinians Joseph Hewes and John Penn
Jul 1 Georg Christoph Lichtenberg a German scientist, satirist, and Anglophile. As a scientist, he was the first to hold a professorship explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. Today, he is remembered for his posthumously published notebooks, which he himself called Sudelbücher, a description modeled on the English bookkeeping term "scrapbooks", and for his discovery of the strange tree-like patterns now called Lichtenberg figures
Aug 7 Nathanael Greene a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia. When the war began, Greene was a militia private, the lowest rank possible; he emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer. Many places in the United States are named for him. Greene suffered financial difficulties in the post-war years and died suddenly of sunstroke in 1786
Aug 14 Pope Pius VII born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, reigned from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823. Chiaramonti was also a monk, theologian, and bishop throughout his life. When he joined his religious order in 1756 he took the name of Gregorio
Aug 14 Hugh Percy 2nd Duke of Northumberland an officer in the British army and later a British peer. He participated in the Battle of Lexington and Concord and the Battle of Long Island during the American Revolutionary War, but resigned his command in 1777 due to disagreements with his superior, General Howe
Aug 19 Jean Dauberval a.k.a. Jean D’Auberval, , was a French dancer and ballet master. He is most noted for creating the ballet, La fille mal gardée, one of the most enduring and popular works of the ballet repertoire
Aug 20 Tadeusz Rejtan a Polish nobleman. He was a member of the Polish Sejm from the constituency of Nowogródek. Rejtan is remembered for a dramatic gesture he made in September 1773, as a deputy of the Partition Sejm. There, Rejtan tried to prevent the legalization of the first partition of Poland, a scene that has been immortalized in the painting Rejtan by Jan Matejko. He has been the subject of many other art works, and is a symbol of patriotism in Poland. Despite his efforts, the partition of Poland was legalized soon afterwards
Sep 8 Ozias Humphry a leading English painter of portrait miniatures, later oils and pastels, of the 18th century. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1791, and in 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King
Sep 9 Alexander Ablesimov a Russian opera librettist, poet, dramatist, satirist and journalist.
Sep 14 James Wilson one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence. Wilson was elected twice to the Continental Congress, where he represented Pennsylvania, and was a major force in drafting the United States Constitution. A leading legal theorist, he was one of the six original justices appointed by George Washington to the Supreme Court of the United States
Sep 20 Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard a French abbé and instructor of the deaf.
Sep 26 Thomas Jones (artist) a Welsh landscape painter. He was a pupil of Richard Wilson and was best known in his lifetime as a painter of Welsh and Italian landscapes in the style of his master. However, Jones's reputation grew in the 20th century when more unconventional works by him, ones not been intended for public consumption, came to light. Most notable among these is a series of views of Naples which he painted from 1782 to 1783. By breaking with the conventions of classical landscape painting in favour of direct observation, they look forward to the work of Camille Corot and the Barbizon School in the 19th century. His autobiography, Memoirs of Thomas Jones of Penkerrig, went unpublished until 1951 but is now recognised as an important source of information on the 18th-century art world
Oct 6 Johan Herman Wessel a Norwegian-Danish poet. Some of his satirical poems are still popular
Oct 26 Charles-François Dupuis a French savant, a professor of rhetoric at the Collège de Lisieux, Paris, who studied for the law in his spare time and was received as avocat in 1770. He also ventured into the field of mathematics and served on the committee that developed the French Republican Calendar. Along with Constantin François Chassebœuf de Volney Dupuis was known for developing the Christ myth theory, which argued that Christianity was an amalgamation of various ancient mythologies and that Jesus was a mythical character
Nov 3 Yakov Knyazhnin Russia's foremost tragic author during the reign of Catherine the Great. Knyazhnin's contemporaries hailed him as the true successor to his father-in-law Alexander Sumarokov, but posterity, in the words of Vladimir Nabokov, tended to view his tragedies and comedies as "awkwardly imitated from more or less worthless French models"
Nov 5 Richard Cosway a leading English portrait painter of the Regency era, noted for his miniatures. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, William Wood, and Richard Crosse. His wife was the Italian-born painter Maria Cosway, a close friend of Thomas Jefferson
Nov 14 Eduard Sandifort a Dutch physician and anatomist. He received his medical doctorate degree from Leiden University in 1763, and worked as a general practitioner in The Hague. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Swedish, and Italian. He became a professor of anatomy and surgery in 1771 at Leiden University. His most important writings are Observationes Anatomico-pathologicæ , Excercitationes anatomicoacademicæ , and the Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavæ , which was finished by his son, Gerard Sandifort. Sandifort translated Nils Rosén von Rosenstein's Underrättelser om barn-sjukdomar och deras botemedel to Dutch in 1768. Sandifort was elected in 1768 as a foreign member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm
Nov 24 Antonio de Capmany y Montpalau born at Barcelona.
Dec 3 James Rennell an English geographer, historian and a pioneer of oceanography.
Dec 6 Nicolas Leblanc a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda from common salt.
Dec 8 Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier a French soldier and political figure who rose to the rank of Marshal of France.
Dec 9 Carl Wilhelm Scheele a Swedish Pomeranian pharmaceutical chemist. Isaac Asimov called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit. For example, Scheele discovered oxygen , and identified molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine before Humphry Davy, among others. Scheele discovered organic acids tartaric, oxalic, uric, lactic, and citric, as well as hydrofluoric, hydrocyanic, and arsenic acids. He preferred speaking German to Swedish his whole life, and German was commonly spoken among Swedish pharmacists
Dec 16 Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who led his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He was made an honorary citizen of Berlin, Hamburg and Rostock, and was nicknamed "German: Marschall Vorwärts" by the soldiers he commanded because of his aggressive approach in warfare
Dec 26 Ignaz von Born a mineralogist and metallurgist. He was a prominent Free Mason, head of Vienna's Illuminati lodge and an influential anti-clerical writer. He was the leading scientist in the Holy Roman Empire during the 1770s in the age of Enlightenment