Born in 1743

Jan 3 Joseph-Benoît Suvée a Flemish painter strongly influenced by French neo-classicism.
Jan 5 Charles Henry of Nassau-Siegen a French-German adventurer and sailer, who became Admiral of the Russian Imperial Navy.
Jan 18 Louis Claude de Saint-Martin a French philosopher, known as le philosophe inconnu, the name under which his works were published.
Jan 24 Anne Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn.
Jan 25 Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi an influential German philosopher, literary figure, socialite, and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi. He is notable for coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought particularly in the philosophical systems of Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Johann Fichte and Friedrich Schelling. Instead of speculative reason, he advocated Glaube and revelation. In this sense, Jacobi anticipated present-day writers who criticize secular philosophy as relativistic and dangerous for religious faith. In his time, he was also well-known among literary circles for his critique of the Sturm and Drang movement, and implicitly close associate Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and its visions of atomized individualism. His literary projects were devoted to the reconciliation of Enlightenment individualism with social obligation
Feb 1 Johan Christopher Toll born at Mölleröd in Scania. Toll came of an ancient family, of Dutch origin, which can be traced back to the 13th century, but migrated to the Baltic provinces in the 16th century
Feb 15 Barbara Erni a Liechtenstein woman known for stealing from inns throughout western Europe using a confidence trick. Known in Liechtenstein legend as Golden Boos, Erni was the last person to be executed by Liechtenstein
Feb 19 Luigi Boccherini an Italian classical era composer and cellist whose music retained a courtly and galante style while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers. Boccherini is most widely known for one particular minuet from his String Quintet in E, 11, 5 , and the Cello Concerto in B flat major. The latter work was long known in the heavily altered version by German cellist and prolific arranger Friedrich Grützmacher, but has recently been restored to its original version. Boccherini composed several guitar quintets including the "Fandango" which was influenced by Spanish music. His biographer Elisabeth Le Guin noted among Boccherini's musical qualities "an astonishing repetitiveness, an affection for extended passages with fascinating textures but virtually no melodic line, an obsession with soft dynamics, a unique ear for sonority, and an unusually rich palette of introverted and mournful affects."
Feb 20 James Gandon today recognised as one of the leading architects to have worked in Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century. His better known works include The Custom House, the Four Courts, King's Inns in Dublin and Emo Court in County Laois
Feb 24 Joseph Banks an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences.
Feb 28 Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau the daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and Anne, Princess Royal.
Feb 28 René Just Haüy a French mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame. He is often referred to as the "Father of Modern Crystallography."
Mar 9 Johann Kaspar Füssli a Swiss painter, entomologist and publisher.
Mar 13 Seweryn Rzewuski a Polish nobleman, Field Hetman of the Crown, general of the Royal Army, one of the leaders of the Confederation of Targowica. Voivode of Podolian Voivodeship
Mar 28 Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. Her name was often spelt in English as Princess Dashkov
Apr 13 Thomas Jefferson an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence , and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy, and embraced the principles of republicanism and the rights of the individual with worldwide influence. At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia, and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France and later the first United States Secretary of State serving under President George Washington. In opposition to Alexander Hamilton's Federalism, Jefferson and his close friend, James Madison, organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and later resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice President in 1796, Jefferson opposed Adams, and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts
Apr 24 Edmund Cartwright an English inventor. He graduated from Oxford University very early and went on to invent the power loom. Married to local Elizabeth McMac at 19, he was the brother of Major John Cartwright, a political reformer and radical, and George Cartwright, explorer of Labrador
May 5 Yevdokiya Yusupova a Duchess consort of Courland. She married the Duke of Courland, Peter von Biron, on March 6, 1774 in Mitava. She had no issue
May 14 Richard Earlom an English mezzotint engraver.
May 17 Seth Warner a Revolutionary War officer from Vermont who rose to rank of Continental colonel and was often given the duties of a brigade commander. He is best known for his leadership in the capture of Fort Crown Point, the Battle of Longueuil, the siege of Quebec, the retreat from Canada, and the battles of Hubbardton and Bennington
May 20 Toussaint Louverture the leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into the independent state of Haiti. The success of the Haitian Revolution shook the institution of slavery throughout the New World
May 21 Manuel de Bernardo Álvarez del Casal an influential Criollo figure in New Granada at the time of the independence movement. He occupied several important positions in the rebel government. He was also the uncle of Antonio Nariño, forerunner of independence. He served as president of the rebel State of Cundinamarca in 1814
May 24 Jean-Paul Marat a physician, political theorist and scientist best known for his career in France as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution. His journalism became renowned for its fierce tone, uncompromising stance toward the new leaders and institutions of the revolution, and advocacy of basic human rights for the poorest members of society
May 25 Georg Christian Unger a German architect who was a pupil of the architect Carl von Gontard and served Frederick II of Prussia. Among his works were the Brandenburg Gate in Potsdam and the Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin
Jun 2 Alessandro Cagliostro the alias of the occultist Giuseppe Balsamo , an Italian adventurer.
Jun 3 Lucia Galeazzi Galvani an Italian scientist.
Jun 3 William I Elector of Hesse the eldest surviving son of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Mary of Great Britain, the daughter of George II.
Jun 3 José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa a Spanish military officer and colonial administrator in America. From August 20, 1806 to July 7, 1816 he was viceroy of Peru, during the Spanish American wars of independence
Jun 20 Anna Laetitia Barbauld a prominent English poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, and children's author.
Jun 29 Adolph Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld a member of the House of Hesse. He was the ruling Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld from 1772 until his death
Jul 14 Gavrila Derzhavin arguably one of the greatest Russian poets before Alexander Pushkin, as well as a statesman. Although his works are traditionally considered literary classicism, his best verse is rich with antitheses and conflicting sounds in a way reminiscent of John Donne and other metaphysical poets
Aug 13 Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (1743–1808) For the earlier archduchess of the same name, see Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria.
Aug 17 Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann a German geographer and zoologist.
Aug 19 Madame du Barry the last Maîtresse-en-titre of Louis XV of France and one of the victims of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.
Aug 26 Antoine Lavoisier a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century Chemical Revolution and a large influence on both the histories of chemistry and biology. He is widely considered to be the "Father of Modern Chemistry."
Sep 11 Nicolai Abildgaard a Danish neoclassical and royal history painter, sculptor, architect, and professor of painting, mythology, and anatomy at the New Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen, Denmark. Many of his works were in the royal Christiansborg Palace , Fredensborg Palace, and Levetzau Palace at Amalienborg
Sep 17 Marquis de Condorcet a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he advocated a liberal economy, free and equal public education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races. His ideas and writings were said to embody the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment and rationalism, and remain influential to this day. He died a mysterious death in prison after a period of flight from French Revolutionary authorities
Sep 22 Quintin Craufurd born at Kilwinning.
Sep 30 Christian Ehregott Weinlig a German composer and cantor of Dresden's Kreuzkirche.
Oct 5 Giuseppe Gazzaniga a member of the Neapolitan school of opera composers. He composed fifty-one operas and is considered to be one of the last Italian opera buffa composers
Oct 15 Yakov Bulgakov a Russian diplomat best remembered as Catherine II's emissary in Constantinople in the 1780s.
Nov 1 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst a German naturalist and entomologist from Petershagen, Minden-Ravensberg. He served as a chaplain in the Prussian army. His marriage in Berlin, 1770, with Euphrosyne Luise Sophie , daughter of the Prussian Hofrat Libert Waldschmidt seems to have been childless
Nov 11 Carl Peter Thunberg a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. He has been called "the father of South African botany" and the "Japanese Linnaeus"
Nov 12 Jacques Antoine Hippolyte Comte de Guibert a French general and military writer. Born at Montauban, he accompanied his father in wars before he became a general himself. He published in 1770 an essay on tactics in London, which was very influential in his time
Nov 14 Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne a leader of the French Protestants and a moderate French revolutionary.
Nov 23 Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne a French officer named by Napoleon "first grenadier of France". He was also a celtomaniac antiquarian who introduced the words "dolmen" and "menhir" into general archaeological usage
Dec 1 Martin Heinrich Klaproth a German chemist who discovered uranium , zirconium , and cerium.
Dec 7 Johann Joachim Eschenburg a German critic and literary historian.
Dec 11 Bernhard Erasmus von Deroy from the Electorate of the Palatinate became a noted general officer in the army of Bavaria. His military career began shortly after the start of the Seven Years' War. During the French Revolutionary Wars he first served on the side of the Coalition against the French revolutionaries, then fought as an ally of the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. Deroy and his colleague, Karl Philipp von Wrede, were dominant personalities in the Bavarian military during the era of Napoleon Bonaparte
Dec 27 Marie-Madeleine Guimard a French ballerina who dominated the Parisian stage during the reign of Louis XVI. For twenty-five years she was the star of the Paris Opera. She made herself even more famous by her love affairs, especially by her long liaison with the Prince of Soubise. According to Edmond de Goncourt, when d'Alembert was asked why dancers like La Guimard made such prodigious fortunes, when singers did not, he responded, "It is a necessary consequence of the laws of motion"