Born in 1744

Jan 3 Ippolit Bogdanovich a Russian classicist author of light poetry, best known for his long poem Dushenka.
Jan 5 Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
Jan 21 Lorenz Florenz Friedrich von Crell a German chemist. In 1778 he started publishing the first periodical journal focusing on chemistry. The journal had a longer title, but was known simply as Crell's Annalen
Feb 8 Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg Archbishop of Mainz, Arch-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince of Regensburg, Prince-Primate of the Confederation of the Rhine and Grand Duke of Frankfurt.
Feb 10 William Mitford the elder of the two sons of John Mitford, a barrister and his wife Philadelphia Reveley.
Feb 10 William Cornwallis a Royal Navy officer. He was the brother of Charles Cornwallis, the 1st Marquess Cornwallis, British commander at the siege of Yorktown. Cornwallis took part in a number of decisive battles including the Siege of Louisbourg in 1758 and the Battle of the Saintes but is best known as a friend of Lord Nelson and as the commander-in-chief of the Channel Fleet during the Napoleonic Wars. He is depicted in the Horatio Hornblower novel, Hornblower and the Hotspur
Feb 13 David Allan (painter) a Scottish painter and illustrator, best known for historical subjects and genre works. He was born at Alloa in central Scotland. On leaving Foulis's academy of painting at Glasgow , after seven years' successful study, he obtained the patronage of Lord Cathcart and of Erskine of Mar, on whose estate he had been born. Erskine made it possible for him to travel to Rome , where he remained until 1777, studying under Gavin Hamilton and copying the old masters
Feb 20 Alessandro Mattei an Italian Cardinal, and a significant figure in papal diplomacy of the Napoleonic period. He was from the Roman aristocratic House of Mattei
Feb 21 Eise Eisinga a Dutch amateur astronomer who built the Eise Eisinga Planetarium in his house in Franeker, Netherlands. The orrery still exists and is the oldest functioning planetarium in the world
Feb 23 Mayer Amschel Rothschild believed to have become the wealthiest family in human history. Referred to as the "founding father of international finance," Rothschild was ranked seventh on the Forbes magazine list of "The Twenty Most Influential Businessmen of All Time" in 2005
Feb 27 Gerard Lake 1st Viscount Lake a British general. He commanded British forces during the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and later served as Commander-in-Chief of the military in British India
Mar 20 Johann Ewald a German military officer from Hesse-Kassel. After first serving in the Seven Years' War, he was the commander of the Jäger corps of the Hessian Leib Infantry Regiment attached to British forces in the American Revolutionary War. He arrived with his troops, first serving in the Battle of White Plains in October 1776. He saw regular action until his capture at Yorktown in 1781. In 1788, he joined the Danish Army, where he rose to the rank of lieutenant general; he also served as governor general of Holstein during the Napoleonic Wars. Following his American war experiences, he wrote an Essay on Partisan Warfare , a widely read treatise on guerrilla warfare. He also kept a journal during most of his time in North America that has since become a valuable resource for historians of the war
Mar 26 Thomas de Mahy marquis de Favras a French aristocrat and supporter of the House of Bourbon during the French Revolution.
Apr 14 Denis Fonvizin a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today. His main works are two satirical comedies which mock contemporary Russian gentry
Apr 22 James Sullivan (governor) a lawyer and politician in Massachusetts. He was an early associate justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, served as the state's attorney general for many years, and as governor of the state from 1807 until his death
May 3 Claude Bigot de Sainte-Croix French Foreign Minister.
May 8 Nikolay Novikov a Russian writer and philanthropist most representative of his country's Enlightenment. Frequently considered to be the first Russian journalist, he aimed at advancing the cultural and educational level of the Russian public
May 18 Joseph Beer (clarinetist) one of the first internationally famous clarinet virtuosos, with connections to many major composers of the era.
May 19 Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz the wife of King George III. She was Queen of Great Britain and Ireland from their marriage until the union of the two kingdoms in 1801, after which she was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1818. She was also the Electress of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire until the promotion of her husband to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, after which she was also queen consort of Hanover
May 19 Constantine Phipps 2nd Baron Mulgrave an English explorer and officer in the Royal Navy. He served during the Seven Years' War and the American War of Independence, seeing action in a number of battles and engagements. Inheriting a title, he also went on to have a successful career in Parliament, and occupied a number of political offices during his later years
May 21 Victor Amadeus of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Bernburg branch through the sub-branch of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym and a Russian General under the service of Empress Catherine II the Great.
May 31 Richard Lovell Edgeworth an Anglo-Irish politician, writer and inventor.
Jun 4 Patrick Ferguson a Scottish officer in the British Army, an early advocate of light infantry and the designer of the Ferguson rifle. He is best known for his service in the 1780 military campaign of Charles Cornwallis during the American Revolutionary War in the Carolinas, in which he aggressively recruited Loyalists and harshly treated Patriot sympathisers. Some dispute this characterization of Ferguson as showing pro-Patriot bias, however, and other accounts praise him for his humanity and unwillingness to follow orders he considered barbaric
Jun 22 Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben a German naturalist from Quedlinburg.
Jun 26 Semyon Vorontsov a Russian diplomat from the aristocratic Russian Vorontsov family, whose siblings included Alexander Vorontsov, Elizaveta Vorontsova and Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova.
Jul 4 Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin a German physician, botanist and explorer.
Jul 6 Infanta Maria Josefa of Spain a Princess of Naples and Sicily by birth. At the accession of her father to the Spanish throne as Charles III, she became an Infanta of Spain. Born and raised in Naples, she arrived in Spain with her family in October 1759, at age fifteen. She lived at the court of her father and later with her brother Charles IV of Spain. She remained unmarried
Jul 17 Elbridge Gerry an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he was selected as the fifth Vice President of the United States , serving under James Madison. He is known best for being the namesake of gerrymandering, a process by which electoral districts are drawn with the aim of aiding the party in power, although its initial "g" has softened to /dʒ/ from the hard /ɡ/ of his name
Jul 19 Heinrich Christian Boie a German author.
Jul 29 Giulio Maria della Somaglia an Italian cardinal. He was — at least in his later life — a staunch zelante cardinal who, as Secretary of State under Pope Leo XII, helped enforce an authoritarian regime in the crumbling Papal States
Jul 29 Paweł Skórzewski Polish Brigadier General of the Duchy of Warsaw, a member of the Bar Confederation, a delegate to the Polish Sejm, senator of the Kingdom of Poland and wojewoda of Kalisz.
Aug 1 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry, meteorology, geology, and botany-zoology
Aug 10 Alexandrine Le Normant d'Étiolles born during the "Scenes of Metz", in which the public was scandalised to learn of the adultery of her stepfather-to-be, Louis XV of France.
Aug 11 Tomás António Gonzaga a Portuguese-born Brazilian poet. One of the most famous Neoclassic colonial Brazilian writers, he was also the ouvidor and the ombudsman of the city of Ouro Preto , as well as the desembargador of the appeal court in Bahia. He wrote under the pen name Dirceu
Aug 16 Pierre Méchain a French astronomer and surveyor who, with Charles Messier, was a major contributor to the early study of deep sky objects and comets.
Aug 25 Johann Gottfried Herder a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic. He is associated with the periods of Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, and Weimar Classicism
Aug 28 Friederike Auguste Sophie of Anhalt-Bernburg a princess consort of Anhalt-Zerbst. She was married to Frederick Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, and sister-in-law to the Russian Empress Catherine the Great. She was the regent governor of Jever from April 1793 until October 1806
Sep 3 Ernst Ferdinand Klein a German jurist and prominent representative of the Berlin Enlightenment.
Sep 3 Henri Admirat a notable figure in the French Revolution. He was executed on the guillotine for attempting to assassinate Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois
Sep 16 Fabrizio Ruffo an Italian cardinal and politician, who led the popular anti-republican Sanfedismo movement.
Sep 21 Giacomo Quarenghi the foremost and most prolific practitioner of Palladian architecture in Imperial Russia, particularly in Saint Petersburg. He has been described as "the last of the great architects of Italy"
Sep 22 Claude Fauchet (revolutionist) a French revolutionary bishop.
Sep 25 Frederick William II of Prussia King of Prussia, from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg and the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. Pleasure-loving and indolent, he is seen as the antithesis to his predecessor, Frederick Under his reign, Prussia was weakened internally and externally, and he failed to deal adequately with the challenges to the existing order posed by the French Revolution. His religious policies were directed against the Enlightenment and aimed at restoring a traditional Protestantism. However, he was a patron of the arts and responsible for the construction of some notable buildings, among them the Brandenburger Tor in Berlin
Oct 6 James McGill Lt.-Colonel The Hon. James McGill was a Scottish-Canadian businessman and philanthropist best known for being the founder of McGill University, Montreal. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada for Montreal West in 1792 and was appointed to the Executive Council of Lower Canada in 1793. He was the first honorary Lieutenant-Colonel of the The Canadian Grenadier Guards. He was also a prominent member of the Château Clique and one of the original founding members of the Beaver Club. His summer home stood within the Golden Square Mile
Oct 7 Sergey Vyazmitinov a Russian general and statesman.
Oct 10 Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle.
Oct 27 Mary Moser an English painter and one of the most celebrated women artists of 18th-century Britain. One of only two female founding members of the Royal Academy , Moser is particularly noted for her depictions of flowers
Oct 28 William Hodges an English painter. He was a member of James Cook's second voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and is best known for the sketches and paintings of locations he visited on that voyage, including Table Bay, Tahiti, Easter Island, and the Antarctic
Nov 3 Friedrich Ludwig Schröder a German actor, manager and dramatist.
Nov 4 Johann III Bernoulli grandson of Johann Bernoulli, and son of Johann II Bernoulli. He was known around the world as a child prodigy. He studied at Basel and at Neuchâtel, and when thirteen years of age took the degree of doctor in philosophy. When he was fourteen, he got the degree of master of jurisprudence. At nineteen he was appointed astronomer royal of Berlin. A year later, he reorganized the astronomical observatory at the Berlin Academy. Some years after, he visited Germany, France and England, and subsequently Italy, Russia and Poland. His travel accounts were of great cultural and historical important. He wrote about Kashubians