Born in 1745

Jan 1 Anthony Wayne a United States Army officer, statesman, and member of the United States House of Representatives. Wayne adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality quickly earned him promotion to brigadier general and the sobriquet Mad Anthony. He later served as General in Chief of the Army and commanded the Legion of the United States
Jan 1 Vincent Strambi a Catholic bishop who was a member of the Passionist Congregation. He was canonised by Pope Pius XII in 1950
Jan 4 Johann Jakob Griesbach born at Butzbach, a small town in the state of Hesse-Darmstadt, where his father, Konrad Kaspar , was pastor. Griesbach's fame rests upon his work in New Testament criticism, in which he inaugurated a new epoch. His solution to the synoptic problem bears his name, but the Griesbach hypothesis has been modernly referred to as the Two-Gospel hypothesis
Jan 7 Johan Christian Fabricius a Danish zoologist, specialising in "Insecta", which at that time included all arthropods: insects, arachnids, crustaceans and others. He was a student of Carl Linnaeus, and is considered one of the most important entomologists of the 18th century, having named nearly 10,000 species of animal, and established the basis for modern insect classification
Jan 9 Caleb Strong a Massachusetts lawyer and politician who served as the sixth and tenth Governor of Massachusetts between 1800 and 1807, and again from 1812 until 1816. He assisted in drafting the Massachusetts State Constitution in 1779 and served as a state senator and on the Massachusetts Governor's Council before being elected to the inaugural United States Senate. A leading member of the Massachusetts Federalist Party, his political success delayed the decline of the Federalists in Massachusetts
Jan 10 Isaac Titsingh a Dutch surgeon, scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador.
Jan 16 Antonio José Cavanilles a leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century. He named many plants, particularly from Oceania. He named at least 100 genera, about 54 of which were still used in 2004, including Dahlia, Calycera, Cobaea, Galphimia, and Oleandra
Jan 17 Nicolas Roze a French composer and musicologist.
Jan 23 William Jessop an English civil engineer, best known for his work on canals, harbours and early railways in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Jan 30 Ernest II Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg the third but second surviving son of Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen. The death of his older brother Frederick in 1756 made him the heir to the duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Feb 1 Archduke Charles Joseph of Austria (1745–1761) the second son of the Habsburg ruler Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Feb 2 Hannah More an English religious writer and philanthropist. She can be said to have made three reputations in the course of her long life: as a poet and playwright in the circle of Johnson, Reynolds and Garrick, as a writer on moral and religious subjects, and as a practical philanthropist
Feb 5 John Jeffries a Boston physician, scientist, and a military surgeon with the British Army in Nova Scotia and New York during the American Revolution. Born in Boston, Jeffries graduated from Harvard College and obtained his medical degree at the University of Aberdeen. He is best known for accompanying Jean-Pierre Blanchard on his 1785 balloon flight across the English Channel. Jeffries also played a large role in the trial for the Boston Massacre as a witness for the defense. He was the surgeon for Patrick Carr, who was one of the Americans shot during that incident
Feb 10 Levin August Count von Bennigsen a German general in the service of the Russian Empire.
Feb 14 Madhavrao I fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. Under his peshwaship, Maratha power recovered from the losses suffered during the Panipat Campaign, a phenomenon known as "Maratha Resurrection". He is considered one of the greatest personalities of the Maratha history
Feb 18 Alessandro Volta an Italian physicist known for the invention of the battery in the 1800s.
Feb 20 Henry James Pye an English poet. Pye was Poet Laureate from 1790 until his death. He was the first poet laureate to receive a fixed salary of £27 instead of the historic tierce of Canary wine
Feb 20 Johann Peter Salomon a German violinist, composer, conductor and musical impresario.
Feb 21 Olof Tempelman a Swedish architect and, from 1779, professor at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. He was appointed royal architect in 1799
Feb 22 Jean-Antoine Roucher a French poet.
Feb 23 Ivan Starov a Russian architect from Petersburg who devised the master plans for Yaroslavl, Voronezh, Pskov, Dnipropetrovsk, Mykolaiv, and many other towns in Russia and Ukraine. His radial urban master plan for Yaroslavl , cleverly highlighting dozens historic churches and towers, is recognized as one of the World Heritage Sites
Feb 24 Fyodor Ushakov the most illustrious Russian naval commander and admiral of the 18th century.
Mar 4 Charles Dibdin a British musician, songwriter, dramatist, novelist and actor. With over 600 songs to his name, for many of which he wrote both the lyrics and the music and performed them himself, he was in his time the most prolific English singer-songwriter. He is best known as the composer of the song "Tom Bowling", which often features at the Last Night of the Proms
Mar 10 John Gunby considered by many to be "one of the most gallant officers of the Maryland Line under Gen. Smallwood". He entered service volunteering as a minuteman in 1775 and fought for the American cause until the end earning praise as probably the most brilliant soldier whom Maryland contributed to the War of Independence. Gunby was also the grandfather of Senator Ephraim King Wilson II
Mar 11 Bodawpaya the sixth king of the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma. Born Maung Shwe Waing and later Badon Min, he was the fourth son of Alaungpaya, founder of the dynasty and the Third Burmese Empire. He was proclaimed king after deposing his nephew Phaungkaza Maung Maung, son of his oldest brother Naungdawgyi, at Ava. Bodawpaya moved the royal capital back to Amarapura in 1782. He was titled Hsinbyumyashin , although he became known to posterity as Bodawpaya in relation to his successor, his grandson Bagyidaw , who in turn was given this name in relation to his nephew Mindon Min. He fathered 62 sons and 58 daughters by about 200 consorts
Mar 19 Johann Peter Frank a German physician and hygienist who was a native of Rodalben.
Mar 21 Johan Nordahl Brun the poet, dramatist, bishop in Bergen , and politician who contributed significantly to the growth of National Romanticism in Norway, contributing to the growing national consciousness.
Mar 27 Lindley Murray an American grammarian.
Apr 2 Richard Bassett (politician) considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A member of the Federalist Party, he served in the Delaware General Assembly, as Governor of Delaware, and as U.S. Senator from Delaware. He holds the Senate Rank of 1, as the most senior United States Senator during the First Congress of the United States
Apr 20 Philippe Pinel a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy. He also made notable contributions to the classification of mental disorders and has been described by some as "the father of modern psychiatry". An 1809 description of a case that Pinel recorded in the second edition of a textbook on insanity is regarded as the earliest evidence for the existence of the form of mental disorder known as dementia praecox or schizophrenia in the 20th century by some although Kraeplin is accredited with its first conceptualisation
Apr 26 Johann Anton Güldenstädt a Baltic German naturalist and explorer in Russian service.
Apr 29 Oliver Ellsworth an American lawyer and politician, a revolutionary against British rule, a drafter of the United States Constitution, United States Senator from Connecticut, and the third Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. While at the Federal Convention, Ellsworth moved to strike the word National from the motion made by Edmund Randolph of Virginia. Randolph had moved successfully to call the government the National Government of United States. Ellsworth moved that the government should continue to be called the United States Government
May 5 Carl August Ehrensvärd a Swedish naval officer, painter, author, and neo-classical architect.
May 8 Carl Stamitz a German composer of partial Czech ancestry. He was the most prominent representative of the second generation of the Mannheim School
Jun 3 Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville a French Vice-admiral. He fought in the American War of Independence and became a prominent figure of the French Revolutionary Wars and of the Napoleonic wars
Jun 8 Caspar Wessel a Norwegian-Danish mathematician and cartographer. In 1799, Wessel was the first person to describe the geometrical interpretation of complex numbers as points in the complex plane. He was the younger brother of poet and playwright Johan Herman Wessel
Jul 5 Carl Arnold Kortum a German physician, but best known for his writing and poetry.
Jul 13 Robert Calder a British naval officer who served in the Seven Years' War, the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Jul 15 Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine a French-born painter, draughtsman, engraver, drawing artist and caricaturist. From 1774 to 1804 he resided in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he obtained citizenship
Jul 17 Daniel Coke an English barrister and member of parliament.
Jul 17 Timothy Pickering a politician from Massachusetts who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams.
Jul 28 Peter Ludwig von der Pahlen a Russian courtier who played a pivotal role in the assassination of Emperor Paul. He became a general in 1798, a count in 1799, and was the Military Governor of Petersburg from 1798 to 1801
Aug 19 Johan Gottlieb Gahn a Swedish chemist and metallurgist who discovered manganese in 1774.
Aug 30 Johann Hieronymus Schröter a German astronomer.
Sep 4 Shneur Zalman of Liadi an Orthodox Rabbi, and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi, Imperial Russia. He was the author of many works, and is best known for Shulchan Aruch HaRav, Tanya and his Siddur Torah Or compiled according to the Nusach Ari
Sep 16 Mikhail Kutuzov a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov contributed much to the military history of Russia and is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals under the reign of Catherine He took part in the suppression of the Bar Confederation's uprising, in three of the Russo-Turkish Wars and in the Napoleonic War, including two major battles at Austerlitz and the battle of Borodino
Oct 10 Margravine Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt a daughter of Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia. By her marriage to Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, she became Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel
Nov 13 Richard Paul Jodrell a classical scholar and playwright.
Nov 13 Valentin Haüy the founder, in 1784, of the first school for the blind, the Royal Institution for the Young Blind in Paris. In 1819, Louis Braille entered this school
Nov 14 Dominique Villars an 18th-century French botanist.