Born in 1746

Jan 4 Benjamin Rush a Founding Father of the United States. Rush was a civic leader in Philadelphia, where he was a physician, politician, social reformer, educator and humanitarian, as well as the founder of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania
Jan 7 George Elphinstone 1st Viscount Keith a British admiral active throughout the Napoleonic Wars.
Jan 11 William Curtis an English botanist and entomologist, who was born at Alton, Hampshire.
Jan 12 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach.
Jan 16 Johann Helfrich von Müller an engineer in the Hessian army who conceived the Difference Engine in 1786, an idea that later evolved into modern computers. In 1784, he was responsible for an improved adding machine based on principles of Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner
Jan 24 Gustav III of Sweden King of Sweden from 1771 until his death.
Jan 25 Stéphanie Félicité comtesse de Genlis a French writer, harpist and educator.
Jan 31 Frederick Louis Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen a Prussian general.
Feb 10 André Thouin a French botanist born in Paris. His younger brother, Gabriel Thouin , was a noted landscape architect
Feb 15 Bathsheba Spooner the first woman to be executed in the United States by Americans rather than the British.
Feb 16 Johann Jakob Wilhelm Heinse born at Langewiesen in Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.
Feb 25 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney "C. C." Pinckney , was an early American statesman of South Carolina, Revolutionary War veteran, and delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He was twice nominated by the Federalist Party as their presidential candidate, but he did not win either election
Feb 26 Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria the Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla by marriage. Maria Amalia was a daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis She was thus younger sister to Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and older sister to Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Marie Antoinette, Queen of France
Feb 27 Louis-Jérôme Gohier a French politician of the Revolutionary period.
Feb 27 Alexei Antonovich of Brunswick the third son of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick and Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia, and younger brother of Ivan VI.
Mar 2 Landgravine Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt a German noblewoman. She was the eldest daughter of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and his wife Caroline. She married Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg on 27 September 1768
Mar 3 Izabela Czartoryska a Polish aristocrat, writer, art collector, and founder of Poland's first museum, the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków.
Mar 8 André Michaux a French botanist and explorer. He is most noted for his study of North American flora. In addition Michaux collected specimens in England, Spain, France, and even Persia. His work was part of a larger European effort to gather knowledge about the natural world. Michaux's contributions included Histoire des chênes de l'Amérique and Flora Boreali-Americana which continued to be botanical references well into the 19th century. His son, Francois André Michaux, also became an authoritative botanist
Mar 15 Friedrich Heinrich Wiggers a German botanist who wrote a flora of Holstein in 1780. A number of variants of his name exist, including "Fridrich Hindrich" and the Latinisation "Fredericus Henricus" and the alternative surname "Wichers"
Mar 27 Samuel Hulse a British Army officer. He saw his first active duty during the Gordon Riots in June 1780 before commanding the 1st Battalion of the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards at key battles of the Flanders Campaign during the French Revolutionary Wars. He also commanded the 1st Guards Brigade at a later battle and then joined the retreat into Germany during the closing stages of the Flanders Campaign. He later took part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland and then returned to England to become General Officer Commanding South East District. After completing active service in the Army, he served in the household of King George IV
Mar 27 Carlo Buonaparte a Corsican lawyer and politician who briefly served as a personal assistant of the revolutionary leader Pasquale Paoli and eventually rose to become Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI. After his death, his son Napoleon became Emperor of the French, and several of his other children received royal titles from their brother
Mar 27 Michael Bruce (poet) a Scottish poet and hymnist.
Mar 30 Francisco Goya a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. Goya was court painter to the Spanish Crown; throughout the Peninsular War he remained in Madrid, where he painted the portrait of Joseph Bonaparte, pretender to the Spanish throne, and documented the war in the masterpiece of studied ambiguity known as the Desastres de la Guerra. Through his works he was both a commentator on and chronicler of his era. The subversive imaginative element in his art, as well as his bold handling of paint, provided a model for the work of artists of later generations, notably Édouard Manet, Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon
Apr 1 Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis a French jurist and politician in time of the French Revolution and the First Empire. His son, Joseph Marie Portalis was a diplomat and statesman
Apr 21 James Harris 1st Earl of Malmesbury an English diplomat.
Apr 23 Félix Vicq-d'Azyr a French physician and anatomist, the originator of comparative anatomy and discoverer of the theory of homology in biology.
May 2 Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet a French politician of the Revolutionary period. His brother, Robert Thomas Lindet, became a constitutional bishop and member of the National Convention. Although his role may not have been spectacular, Jean-Baptiste Lindet came to be the embodiment of the growing middle class that came to dominate French politics during the Revolution
May 5 Jean-Nicolas Pache a French politician who served as Mayor of Paris from 1793 to 1794.
May 9 Gaspard Monge a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry , and the father of differential geometry. During the French Revolution he served as the Minister of the Marine, and was involved in the reform of the French educational system, helping to found the École Polytechnique
May 18 Félix de Azara a Spanish military officer, naturalist, and engineer.
May 19 Johann Friedrich Peter an American composer of German origin. He emigrated to the United States in 1770, and for a time served as an organist and violinist with Unity of the Brethren congregations in North Carolina and Pennsylvania. As a composer he wrote mostly anthems; also included in his output are six string quintets for two violins, two violas, and a violoncello, among the earliest examples of chamber music known by a North American composer. The six string quintets, performed by the American Moravian Chamber Ensemble, were recorded and published in 1997 on New World Records 80507-2
Jun 8 Jean Henri van Swinden a Dutch mathematician and physicist who taught in Franeker and Amsterdam.
Jun 15 Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle an 18th-century French botanist and magistrate. Born into an affluent upper-class Parisian family, connections with the French Royal Court secured him the position of Superindent of Parisian Waters and Forests at the age of twenty-six. In this capacity, L'Héritier conducted various studies of native trees and shrubs, also gaining interest in exotic flora
Jun 17 Joseph Winston Col. Joseph Winston was an American pioneer, planter and Revolutionary War hero from North Carolina, and the first cousin of statesman and Virginia governor Patrick Henry. In 1766, Winston moved to the northern part of Rowan County, North Carolina, the area which subsequently became the current Stokes County, North Carolina
Jun 26 Jean-Sifrein Maury a French cardinal, archbishop, and bishop of Montefiascone.
Jun 29 Joachim Heinrich Campe a German writer, linguist, educator and publisher. He was a major representative of philanthropinism and the German Enlightenment
Jul 3 Henry Grattan an Irish politician and member of the Irish House of Commons and a campaigner for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the late 18th century. McDowell says that he was:
Jul 3 Sophia Magdalena of Denmark Queen of Sweden as the spouse of King Gustav III.
Jul 16 Giuseppe Piazzi an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order, mathematician, and astronomer. He was born in Ponte in Valtellina, and died in Naples. He established an observatory at Palermo, now the Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo – Giuseppe Vaiana. Perhaps his most famous discovery was the first asteroid, Ceres
Jul 28 Thomas Heyward Jr. a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and of the Articles of Confederation as a representative of South Carolina.
Aug 3 James Wyatt an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style and neo-Gothic style.
Aug 8 Hieronymus van Alphen especially remembered as a poet, particularly for his poems for children under the title Kleine gedigten voor kinderen.
Aug 23 Johann Erich Thunmann a linguist, historian and theologian born in Thoresund in Sweden. He studied at Strängnäs and Uppsala then left Sweden to study at Greifswald. Thunmann was professor of philosophy at the University of Halle
Sep 16 Georges Louis Marie Dumont de Courset a French botanist and agronomist. Born near Boulogne, he studied in Paris and showed an aptitude for music and drawing
Sep 20 Maurice Benyovszky a Slovak-Hungarian count with Hungarian, Polish and Slovak ancestry. He was an explorer, writer, ruler and self declared King of eastern Madagascar, and military officer in the French, Polish, Austrian and American armies. In his memoirs he described himself on several occasions as a "Hungarian and Polish nobleman"
Sep 28 William Jones (philologist) an Anglo-Welsh philologist and scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. He, along with Henry Thomas Colebrooke and Nathaniel Halhed, founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and started a journal called Asiatick Researches
Oct 1 Peter Muhlenberg an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, and political figure in the newly independent United States. A Lutheran minister, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania
Oct 7 William Billings regarded as the first American choral composer.
Oct 22 James Northcote an English painter.
Oct 26 Curt von Stedingk a count of the von Stedingk family, and a successful Swedish army officer and diplomat who played a prominent role in Swedish foreign policy during several decades.