Born in 1748

Jan 7 David Gilly a German architect and architecture-tutor in Prussia, known as the father of the architect Friedrich Gilly.
Jan 30 Frederick V Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg from 1751 to his death landgrave of Hesse-Homburg. He was the son of Frederick IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg and Ulrike Louise of Solms-Braunfels , daughter of Frederick William, Prince of Solms-Braunfels
Feb 5 Christian Gottlob Neefe a German opera composer and conductor.
Feb 5 Elias Stein (chess player) a Dutch chess master.
Feb 6 Adam Weishaupt a German philosopher and founder of the secret society, the Order of the Illuminati.
Feb 9 Sir John Duckworth 1st Baronet an officer of the Royal Navy, serving during the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as the Governor of Newfoundland during the War of 1812, and a member of the British House of Commons during his semi-retirement. Duckworth, a vicar's son, achieved much in a naval career that began at the age of 11
Feb 15 Jeremy Bentham a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism
Feb 20 Luther Martin a politician and one of United States' Founding Fathers, who refused to sign the Constitution because he felt it violated states' rights. He was a leading Anti-Federalist, along with Patrick Henry and George Mason, whose actions helped passage of the Bill of Rights
Feb 26 Luigi Fortis Very Rev. Luigi Fortis, S.J. was an Italian Jesuit elected 20th Superior-General of the Society of Jesus
Feb 26 Jean-Baptiste Landé a French ballet dancer, active in Sweden, Denmark and Russia. He is the founder of the Russian Ballet Mariinsky Ballet
Feb 27 Anders Erikson Sparrman a Swedish naturalist, abolitionist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
Mar 5 William Shield an English composer, violinist and violist who was born in Swalwell near Gateshead, the son of William Shield and his wife, Mary, née Cash.
Mar 5 Jonas Carlsson Dryander a Swedish botanist.
Mar 8 William V Prince of Orange the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. He went into exile to London in 1795. He was the reigning Prince of Nassau-Orange until his death in 1806. In that capacity he was succeeded by his son William
Mar 10 John Playfair a Scottish scientist and mathematician, and a professor of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He is perhaps best known for his book Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth , which summarised the work of James Hutton. It was through this book that Hutton's principle of uniformitarianism, later taken up by Charles Lyell, first reached a wide audience. Playfair's textbook Elements of Geometry made a brief expression of Euclid's parallel postulate known now as Playfair's axiom
Mar 17 William Coxe (historian) an English historian and clergyman who served as a traveling companion and tutor to nobility from 1771 to 1786. He wrote numerous historical works and travel chronicles. Ordained a deacon in 1771, he served as a rector and then archdeacon of Bemerton near Salisbury from 1786 until his death
Mar 19 Elias Hicks a traveling Quaker preacher from Long Island, New York. In his ministry he promoted doctrines that embroiled him and his followers in a controversy which caused the first major schism within the Religious Society of Friends. Elias Hicks was the older cousin of the painter Edward Hicks, also a Quaker preacher
Mar 25 Benedict Joseph Labre a French mendicant, Franciscan tertiary and Catholic saint.
Apr 12 Antoine Laurent de Jussieu a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu
Apr 13 Joseph Bramah an inventor and locksmith. He is best known for having invented the hydraulic press. Along with William George Armstrong, he can be considered one of the two fathers of hydraulic engineering
Apr 20 Georg Michael Telemann a German composer and theologian.
Apr 27 Adamantios Korais a Greek humanist scholar credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment. His activities paved the way for the Greek War of Independence and the emergence of a purified form of the Greek language, known as Katharevousa. Encyclopædia Britannica asserts that "his influence on the modern Greek language and culture has been compared to that of Dante on Italian and Martin Luther on German"
Apr 27 Pierre-Louis Ginguené a French author.
May 3 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer. He was one of the chief political theorists of the French Revolution, and also played a prominent role in the French Consulate and First French Empire. His 1789 pamphlet What is the Third Estate? became the de facto manifesto of the Revolution, helping to transform the Estates-General into the National Assembly in June 1789. In 1799, he was among the instigators of the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire , which brought Napoleon Bonaparte to power. He also coined the term "sociologie" in an unpublished manuscript, and made significant theoretical contributions to the nascent social sciences
May 7 Olympe de Gouges a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience.
May 10 Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot a French ornithologist.
May 14 Franz von Albini a German judge and statesman, noted for organising the defence of German states against the French Revolution.
May 22 Thomas Roberts (painter) an Irish landscape painter.
May 24 Christian Ehrenfried Weigel a German scientist and, beginning in 1774, a professor of Chemistry, Pharmacy, Botany, and Mineralogy at the University of Greifswald.
Jun 24 Jean Florimond Boudon de Saint-Amans a French naturalist and antiquarian. He was the author of works involving agriculture, botany and antiquities
Jul 11 Henri François Anne de Roussel a French naturalist.
Jul 20 Giulio Gabrielli the Younger an Italian Catholic Church's cardinal. He spent most of his career in the Roman Curia
Aug 8 Johann Friedrich Gmelin a German naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist and malacologist.
Aug 11 Joseph Schuster (composer) a German composer.
Aug 14 Princess Caroline of Waldeck and Pyrmont a Duchess consort of Courland.
Aug 16 Duke George Augustus of Mecklenburg a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and a German sailor and soldier.
Aug 18 Pierre Sonnerat a French naturalist and explorer.
Aug 30 Jacques-Louis David an influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo frivolity toward a classical austerity and severity, heightened feeling harmonizing with the moral climate of the final years of the Ancien Régime
Aug 31 Jean-Étienne Despréaux a French ballet dancer, choreographer, composer, singer and playwright.
Sep 12 Johann Kollowrat Feldmarschall Johann Karl, Graf von Kollowrat-Krakowsky joined the Austrian army, fought against the Kingdom of Prussia and Ottoman Turkey before being promoted to general officer rank. During combat against the French in the French Revolutionary Wars, he first became known as an artillery specialist. In the Napoleonic Wars, he commanded corps in the 1805 and 1809 campaigns. He became the Proprietor of an Austrian infantry regiment in 1801 and held that position until his death
Sep 26 Cuthbert Collingwood 1st Baron Collingwood an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Lord Nelson in several of the British victories of the Napoleonic Wars, and frequently as Nelson's successor in commands.
Oct 7 Charles XIII of Sweden King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway from 1814 until his death. He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick II of Prussia
Oct 13 Franz von Werneck Freiherr von Werneck, born 13 October 1748 – died 17 January 1806, enlisted in the army of Habsburg Austria and fought in the Austro-Turkish War, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars. He enjoyed a distinguished career until 1797, when he lost a battle and was dismissed as punishment. He was only reinstated in 1805. In that year he surrendered his command and was later brought up on charges. He died while awaiting a court-martial
Oct 19 Thomas Graham 1st Baron Lynedoch a Scottish aristocrat, politician and British Army officer. After his education at Oxford, he inherited a substantial estate in Scotland was married and settled down to a quiet career as a landowning gentleman. However, with the death of his wife, when he was aged 42, he immersed himself in a military career, during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars
Oct 30 Martha Jefferson the wife of Thomas Jefferson, who was the third President of the United States. She was a widow at her second marriage, as her first husband had died young. The Jeffersons had six children together, but only two daughters survived to adulthood, and only one past the age of 25. Weakened by childbirth, Martha Jefferson died several months after the birth of her last child
Oct 31 José Iglesias de la Casa a Spanish priest and poet. He pursued his studies at the University of Salamanca, and in 1783 took Holy orders at Madrid. During his lifetime he published two minor poems, "La niñez Laureada" , and "La Teclogia". Before producing these he had composed his really important poems, which are chiefly satirical and epigrammatical in their nature. In fact, as a satirist he is to be ranked only lower than Francisco de Quevedo. Certain portions of his satirical lyrics provided offense to the authorities, and the 1798 edition of them was put on the Index by the Inquisition. The necessity of this action was denied by some of his warm friends. Among the better-known editions of his works are those of Barcelona , of Paris , and of Madrid. They are most readily accessible in the "Biblioteca de autores Españoles", vol. LXI, which contains about 38 letrillas—in the composition of which he excelled—besides a numbers of satires, epigrams, odes, anacreontics, ecologues, etc. Not long since, some of his unedited poems were published by Foulche-Delbosc, in the "Revue Hispanique", vol. II
Nov 11 Charles IV of Spain King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.
Nov 20 Jean-François de Bourgoing a French diplomat, writer and translator. A commander of the légion d'honneur, he was also a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences, a member of the Copenhagen Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences from 1810, a knight then a baron de l'Empire, and a knight of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star
Nov 30 Joachim Albertini an Italian-born composer, who spent most of his life in Poland. His opera Don Juan albo Ukarany libertyn was performed in the 1780s with both Italian and Polish libretti
Dec 9 Claude Louis Berthollet a Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804. He is known for his scientific contributions to theory of chemical equilibria via the mechanism of reverse chemical reactions, and for his contribution to modern chemical nomenclature. On a practical basis, Berthollet was the first to demonstrate the bleaching action of chlorine gas, and was first to develop a solution of sodium hypochlorite as a modern bleaching agent