Born in 1749

Jan 13 Maler Müller best known for his slightly sentimental prose idylls on country life. Usually known as Maler Müller
Jan 16 Vittorio Alfieri an Italian dramatist and poet, considered the "founder of Italian tragedy.".
Jan 19 Princess Casimire of Anhalt-Dessau a princess of Anhalt-Dessau by birth and Countess of Lippe-Detmold by marriage.
Jan 21 Chaim of Volozhin an Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and ethicist. Popularly known as "Reb Chaim Volozhiner" or simply as "Reb Chaim", he was born in Volozhin when it was a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He died there while it was under the control of the Russian Empire. It is part of present-day Belarus
Jan 24 Charles James Fox a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was particularly noted for being the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger. His father Henry, a leading Whig of his day, had similarly been the great rival of Pitt's famous father. Fox rose to prominence in the House of Commons as a forceful and eloquent speaker with a notorious and colourful private life, though his opinions were rather conservative and conventional. However, with the coming of the American War of Independence and the influence of the Whig Edmund Burke, Fox's opinions evolved into some of the most radical ever to be aired in the Parliament of his era
Jan 29 Christian VII of Denmark an Oldenburg monarch who ruled as King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1766 until his death. He was the son of King Frederick V and his first wife Louise of Great Britain
Feb 8 Friedrich Adam Julius von Wangenheim a German botanist specializing in forestry, and was the citing authority for a number of described eastern North American plant species. He was also a Hessian soldier, and during his service in the thirteen colonies devoted his leisure time to botanical studies of American forests. When he returned to Prussia, he wrote up his research and strongly advocated importing suitable American species of trees and shrubs for use in German forests
Feb 22 Johann Nikolaus Forkel a German musician, musicologist and music theorist.
Feb 23 Gertrud Elisabeth Mara a German operatic soprano.
Feb 25 Jean Bon Saint-André a French politician of the Revolution era.
Mar 9 Honoré Gabriel Riqueti comte de Mirabeau a leader of the early stages of the French revolution. A noble, before 1789 he was involved in numerous scandals that left his reputation in ruins. However during the early years of the French Revolution he rose to the top and became the voice of the people. A successful orator, he was the leader of the moderate position, favoring a constitutional monarchy built on the model of Great Britain. When he died he was a great national hero, even though support for his moderate position was slipping away. The later discovery that starting in 1790 he was in the pay of the king and the Austrian enemies of France caused his disgrace. Historians are deeply split on whether he was a great leader who almost saved the nation from the Terror, or a venal demagogue lacking political or moral values, or a traitor in the pay of the enemy
Mar 10 Lorenzo Da Ponte a Venetian opera librettist and poet. He wrote the librettos for 28 operas by 11 composers, including three of Mozart's greatest operas, Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro and Così fan tutte
Mar 19 Princess Louisa of Great Britain a grandchild of George II and sister of George III.
Mar 23 Pierre-Simon Laplace an influential French scholar whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste. This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace
Mar 28 Antonio Doria Pamphili an Italian Cardinal from a prominent Neapolitan noble family of Genoese heritage. As protodeacon, he announced the election of cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti election at the end of the conclave of 1800 as Pope Pius VII
Apr 1 François Joseph de Gratet vicomte Dubouchage an artillery general, politician, and French Minister of Marine in 1792 and 1815, and Minister of Foreign Affairs 1792.
Apr 2 David Ramsay (historian) an American physician, public official, and historian from Charleston, South Carolina. He was one of the first major historians of the American Revolution. During the Revolution he served in the South Carolina legislature until he was captured by the British. After his release he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1782–1783 and again in 1785–1786. Afterwards he served in the state House and Senate until retiring from public service. He was murdered in 1815 by a mentally ill man whom Ramsay had examined as a physician
Apr 6 William Blount an American statesman and land speculator, and a signer of the United States Constitution. He was a member of the North Carolina delegation at the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and led efforts in North Carolina to ratify the Constitution in 1789. He subsequently served as the only governor of the Southwest Territory, and played a leading role in helping the territory gain admission to the Union as the State of Tennessee. He was selected as one of Tennessee's initial U.S. senators in 1796
Apr 10 Georg Prochaska a leading Czech-Austrian anatomist, ophthalmologist, physiologist, writer and university professor. He wrote the first genuine textbook on physiology and created the concept of nerve conduction among other theories. He was a staunch promoter of the modern reflex theory
Apr 11 Adélaïde Labille-Guiard a French miniaturist and portrait painter.
Apr 28 Adolf Fredrik Munck a Swedish and Finnish noble, during the Gustavian era.
May 4 Charlotte Turner Smith an English Romantic poet and novelist. She initiated a revival of the English sonnet, helped establish the conventions of Gothic fiction, and wrote political novels of sensibility
May 5 Jean-Frédéric Edelmann a French classical composer. He was born in Strasbourg but, after studying law and music, he moved to Paris in 1774 where he played and taught the piano. It is possible that Edelmann worked for some time in London. During the French Revolution he was appointed administrator of the Bas-Rhin. In July 1794 he was arrested and executed by guillotine
May 15 Levi Lincoln Sr. an American revolutionary, lawyer, and statesman from Massachusetts. A Democratic-Republican, he most notably served as Thomas Jefferson's first Attorney General, and played a significant role in the events that led to the celebrated Marbury Madison court case. He served two terms as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, acting as Governor for the remainder of Governor James Sullivan's term after his death in December 1808. Lincoln was unsuccessful in his bid to be elected governor in his own right in 1809
May 16 Nikolai Putyatin a philanthropist, philosopher and eccentric personality from the Rurikid dynasty.
May 17 Edward Jenner an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine. He is often called "the father of immunology", and his work is said to have "saved more lives than the work of any other human"
May 25 Gregorio Funes an Argentine clergyman, educator, historian, journalist and lawmaker who played a significant role in his nation's early, post-independence history.
Jun 15 Georg Joseph Vogler a German composer, organist, teacher and theorist. In a long career and colorful career extending over many more nations and decades than was usual at the time, Vogler established himself as a foremost experimenter in baroque and early classic music. His greatest successes came as performer and designer for the organ at various courts and cities around Europe, as well as a teacher, attracting highly successful and devoted pupils such as Carl Maria von Weber. His career as a music theorist and composer however was mixed, with contemporaries such as Mozart believing Vogler to have been a charlatan. Despite his mixed reception in his own life, his highly-original contributions in many areas of music and influence on his pupils endured, and combined with his eccentric and adventurous career, prompted one historian to summarize Vogler as "one of the most bizarre characters in the history of music"
Jun 16 Gottlieb Conrad Christian Storr a German physician, chemist and naturalist.
Jun 19 Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois a French actor, dramatist, essayist, and revolutionary. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror and, while he saved Madame Tussaud from the Guillotine, he administered the execution of more than 2,000 people in the city of Lyon
Jul 16 Cyrus Griffin a lawyer and judge who served as the last President of the Continental Congress, holding office from January 22, 1788, to November 2, 1788. He resigned after the ratification of the United States Constitution rendered the old Congress obsolete, and was later a United States federal judge
Aug 3 Domenico Alberto Azuni an Italian jurist.
Aug 5 Thomas Lynch Jr. a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of South Carolina; his father was unable to sign the Declaration of Independence because of illness.
Aug 10 Christian August Lorentzen a Danish painter. He was the instructor of Martinus Rørbye
Aug 28 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe a German writer and statesman. His body of work includes epic and lyric poetry written in a variety of metres and styles; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour; and four novels. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him are extant
Aug 29 Gilbert Blane a Scottish physician who instituted health reform in the Royal Navy.
Aug 31 Alexander Radishchev a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under Catherine the Great. He brought the tradition of radicalism in Russian literature to prominence with the publication in 1790 of his Journey from Petersburg to Moscow. His depiction of socio-economic conditions in Russia earned him exile to Siberia until 1797
Sep 8 Dominique Joseph Garat a French writer and politician.
Sep 8 Yolande de Polastron the favourite of Marie Antoinette, whom she first met when she was presented at the Palace of Versailles in 1775, the year after Marie Antoinette became the Queen of France. She was considered one of the great beauties of pre-Revolutionary high society, but her extravagance and exclusivity earned her many enemies
Sep 8 Princess Marie Louise of Savoy a member of a cadet branch of the House of Savoy. She was married at the age of 17 to Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre, Prince de Lamballe, the heir to the greatest fortune in France. After her marriage, which lasted a year, she went to court and became the confidante of Queen Marie Antoinette. She was killed in the massacres of September 1792 during the French Revolution
Sep 19 Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre a French mathematician and astronomer. He was also director of the Paris Observatory, and author of well-known books on the history of astronomy from ancient times to the 18th century
Sep 25 Abraham Gottlob Werner a German geologist who set out an early theory about the stratification of the Earth's crust and propounded an earth history that others labeled Neptunism. While most tenets of Neptunism were eventually set aside, science is indebted to Werner for clearly demonstrating the chronological succession of rocks, for the zeal which he infused into his pupils, and for the impulse which he thereby gave to the study of geology. Much of his work was based on pre-existing traditions of stratigraphy and cosmogony in Europe. He has been called the “father of German geology.”
Oct 2 Jacques Cambry a Breton writer and expert in Celtic France. An early proponent of what came to be called Celtomania, he was the founder of the Celtic Academy, the forerunner of the Societé des Antiquaires de France. In addition, he is still honored as the "inventor" of the Oise département and praised for his contributions to the regional Breton identity as well as the national identity of post-Revolutionary France
Oct 4 Jean-Louis Duport a cellist and composer.
Oct 10 Martin Vahl a Danish-Norwegian botanist and zoologist.
Oct 13 John Sims (taxonomist) an English physician and botanist.
Oct 14 Erik Pauelsen a Danish painter. He is most notable for his landscapes and was also a popular portraitist. However, he did not experience the same level of success as Jens Juel and Nicolai Abildgaard, his contemporaries, and in 1790 he committed suicide
Oct 21 Tadeusz Brzozowski Very Rev. Tadeusz Brzozowski, S.J. was a Polish Jesuit, elected 19th Superior General of the Society of Jesus
Oct 22 Cornelis van der Aa a bookseller in Haarlem when he was convicted in 1796 by the schepenen of the city to five years imprisonment and consecutive perpetual exile from the department Holland for political reasons as a follower of the stadtholders. At the end of 1799, he was released and settled in Utrecht as a bookseller. From then on until his death in 1816 in Amsterdam, where he moved to later on, he spent his time writing the following books:
Oct 25 Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein. Erik Magnus was Chamberlain to Her Majesty Queen Sophia Magdalena. In 1783 he was appointed chargé d'affaires to the Court of France, and in 1785 he was named Ambassador to France. On 21 January 1786 he married the daughter of the French Minister of Finance Jacques Necker, mademoiselle Anne Louise Germaine Necker, who was to achieve fame as "Madame de Staël"