Born in 1750

Jan 1 Christoph Haberland considered one of the brightest masters of classicism architecture in Latvian history.
Jan 1 Frederick Muhlenberg an American minister and politician who was the first Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. A delegate and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and a Lutheran pastor by profession, Muhlenberg was born in Trappe, Pennsylvania
Jan 7 Robert Anderson (editor and biographer) a Scottish author and critic.
Jan 10 Thomas Erskine 1st Baron Erskine a British lawyer and politician. He served as Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom between 1806 and 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents
Jan 18 Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider a German classicist and naturalist.
Jan 20 Princess Louise of Denmark (1750–1831) born to Frederick V of Denmark and Louise of Great Britain. Her eldest daughter, Marie of Hesse-Kassel, was the wife of Frederick VI of Denmark
Jan 25 Johann Gottfried Vierling a German organist and composer.
Feb 4 Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela of Austria an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany, Hungary and Bohemia as the eleventh child and ninth daughter of Francis Stephen of Lorraine, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa. She was described as likeable and good-natured, but died aged 12 of smallpox
Feb 10 Stanislao Mattei O.F.M. Conv. , was an Italian Conventual Franciscan friar who was a noted composer, musicologist, and music teacher of his era
Feb 14 René Louiche Desfontaines a French botanist.
Feb 23 Princess Catherine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck a daughter of Peter August of Holstein-Beck, who was a Russian field marshal and governor of Estonia, and his second wife, Countess Natalia Golovina.
Feb 28 Ignacy Potocki a Polish nobleman, member of the influential magnate Potocki family, owner of Klementowice and Olesin , a politician, writer, and office holder. He was the Marshal of the Permanent Council in 1778–1782, Grand Clerk of Lithuania from 1773, Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1783, Grand Marshal of Lithuania from 16 April 1791 to 1794
Mar 5 Jean-Baptiste Gaspard d'Ansse de Villoison a classical scholar born at Corbeil-sur-Seine, France.
Mar 12 Barlaam (Shyshatsky) defroched Archbishop of Mogilev and Vitebsk of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Mar 16 Caroline Herschel a German British astronomer and the sister of astronomer Sir William Herschel with whom she worked throughout both of their careers. Her most significant contributions to astronomy were the discoveries of several comets and in particular the periodic comet 35P/Herschel-Rigollet, which bears her name
Mar 20 Martin van Marum a Dutch physician, inventor, scientist and teacher, who studied medicine and philosophy in Groningen. Van Marum introduced modern chemistry in the Netherlands after the theories of Lavoisier, and several scientific applications for general use. He became famous for his demonstrations with instruments, most notable the Large electricity machine, to show statical electricity and chemical experiments while curator for the Teylers Museum
Mar 23 Johannes Matthias Sperger an Austrian contrabassist and composer.
Mar 26 Gilbert Romme a French politician and mathematician who developed the French Republican Calendar.
Mar 28 Francisco de Miranda a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812. He was handed over to his enemies and four years later, in 1816, died in a Spanish prison. Within fourteen years of his death, however, most of Spanish America was independent
Mar 30 John Stafford Smith a British composer, church organist, and early musicologist. He was one of the first serious collectors of manuscripts of works by Johann Sebastian Bach
Apr 1 Hugo Kołłątaj a Polish Roman Catholic priest, social and political activist, political thinker, historian and philosopher. He is seen as one of the most prominent figures of the Enlightenment in Poland
Apr 7 Maria Beatrice d'Este Duchess of Massa heiress of Modena and Reggio as well as the sovereign of Massa and Carrara from 1790 until 1797 and from 1816 until her death in 1829.
Apr 17 François de Neufchâteau a French statesman, poet, and scientist.
Apr 24 Simon Antoine Jean L'Huilier a Swiss mathematician of French Hugenot descent. He is known for his work in mathematical analysis and topology, and in particular the generalization of Euler's formula for planar graphs
May 2 John André a British Army officer hanged as a spy by the Continental Army during the American War of Independence for assisting Benedict Arnold's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British.
May 13 Lorenzo Mascheroni an Italian mathematician.
May 15 Victor Scipion Charles Auguste de La Garde de Chambonas a mayor of Sens, brigadier general, and French foreign minister, at the beginning of the French Revolution.
May 15 Christian Jensen Lofthuus a prominent farmer from Risør, Norway. Between 1786-87, he led a large peasant revolt in Norway which became known as the Lofthusreisingen
May 18 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla a Mexican Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
May 20 Stephen Girard a French-born, naturalized American, philanthropist and banker. He personally saved the U.S. government from financial collapse during the War of 1812, and became one of the wealthiest people in America, estimated to have been the fourth richest American of all time, based on the ratio of his fortune to contemporary GDP. Childless, he devoted much of his fortune to philanthropy, particularly the education and welfare of orphans. His legacy is still felt in his adopted home of Philadelphia
May 31 Karl August von Hardenberg a Prussian statesman and Prime Minister of Prussia. While during his late career he acquiesced to reactionary policies, earlier in his career he implemented a variety of Liberal reforms. To him and Baron vom Stein, Prussia was indebted for improvements in its army system, the abolition of serfdom and feudal burdens, the throwing open of the civil service to all classes, and the complete reform of the educational system
Jun 2 Jean-Baptiste Mailhe a politician during the French Revolution. He gave his name to ""the Mailhe amendment", which sought to delay the execution of Louis XVI
Jun 6 José Correia da Serra a Portuguese Abbot, polymath - philosopher, diplomat, politician and scientist. In some circumstances, he was also known as Abbé Correa. The plant genus Correa is named in his honour
Jun 18 Johann Jahn a German Orientalist.
Jun 21 Pierre-Nicolas Beauvallet a French sculptor, draftsman and printmaker.
Jun 23 Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu a French geologist; the mineral and the rock dolomite and the largest summital crater on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano were named after him.
Jul 1 Heshen from the Manchu Niohuru clan and an official of the Qing dynasty who was favoured by the Qianlong Emperor. Born Shanbao , his given name was later changed to Heshen. His courtesy name was Zhizhai. He was a member of the Plain Red Banner, and known as the most corrupt official in Chinese history. Heshen was born as the son of a Manchu military officer and was selected to go to the most privileged school for Manchu aristocratic boys. He lost his mother when he was young and it was said he and his younger brother had a hard life under his stepmother. However, it was reported that Heshen was an excellent student, knowing several languages including Mandarin, Manchu, Mongolian and Tibetan. In 1772, he began work in the Imperial Palace, assigned as an imperial bodyguard and was stationed at the gates to the Forbidden City
Jul 5 Aimé Argand a Swiss physicist and chemist. He invented the Argand lamp, a great improvement on the traditional oil lamp
Jul 15 Francis Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He is a patrilineal ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, King Philippe of Belgium and Simeon Sakskoburggotski, former tsar and prime minister of Bulgaria
Jul 25 Henry Knox a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, and also served as the first United States Secretary of War.
Jul 28 Fabre d'Églantine a French actor, dramatist, poet, and politician of the French Revolution.
Aug 10 Daniel Gottlob Türk a notable composer, organist, and music professor of the Classical Period.
Aug 10 Andrei Budberg a Russian Empire diplomat who served as Foreign Minister in 1806–07.
Aug 15 Sylvain Maréchal a French essayist, poet, philosopher, and, as a political theorist, precursor of utopian socialism and communism. Maréchal was also the editor of the newspaper Révolutions de Paris
Aug 18 Antonio Salieri an Italian classical composer, conductor and teacher born in Legnago, south of Verona, in the Republic of Venice, but who spent his adult life and career as a subject of the Habsburg Monarchy.
Aug 24 Letizia Ramolino the mother of Napoleon I of France.
Sep 3 Jacques-François Menou a French statesman of the French Revolution and general of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Sep 5 Robert Fergusson a Scottish poet. After formal education at the University of St Andrews, Fergusson followed an essentially bohemian life course in Edinburgh, the city of his birth, then at the height of intellectual and cultural ferment as part of the Scottish enlightenment. Many of his extant poems were printed from 1771 onwards in Walter Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine, and a collected works was first published early in 1773. Despite a short life, his career was highly influential, especially through its impact on Robert Burns. He wrote both Scottish English and the Scots language, and it is his vivid and masterly writing in the latter leid for which he is principally acclaimed
Sep 8 Tanikaze Kajinosuke officially recognized as the fourth yokozuna, and the first to be awarded the title of yokozuna within his own lifetime. He achieved great fame and won 21 tournament championships. He was also the coach of Raiden Tameemon
Sep 13 Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell a German landscape gardener from Weilburg an der Lahn.