Born in 1753

Jan 9 Luísa Todi a popular and successful Portuguese mezzo-soprano opera singer.
Jan 11 Charlotte Buff a youthful acquaintance of the poet Goethe, who fell in love with her. She rejected him and instead married Johann Christian Kestner, a diplomat and art collector. In Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young Werther, the character of Lotte is in part based on her. Their relationship was characterized by heartiness and lack of constraint. Goethe bought the wedding rings for her and Kestner, in Frankfurt am Main. Charlotte Kestner had four daughters and eight sons, among them August Kestner
Jan 26 Elizabeth Smith-Stanley Countess of Derby an English peeress. As the eligible eldest daughter of the 6th Duke of Hamilton, she married the 12th Earl of Derby in 1774, giving birth to three children. Lady Derby was popular among society and considered a leader of fashion alongside the Duchess of Devonshire. Five years after the marriage, Lady Derby embarked in a very public affair with the 3rd Duke of Dorset. She eventually separated from her husband, which caused a scandal and led to her effective exile from society, especially after it was learned that she would not be marrying the Duke. Lady Derby moved abroad, only returning once her husband attracted embarrassing press attention for his very public relationship with the actress Elizabeth Farren, whom he married soon after Lady Derby's death in 1797
Feb 2 Catherine Hübscher a First French Empire noblewoman, maréchale Lefebvre and duchesse de Dantzig by her marriage to François Joseph Lefebvre.
Feb 6 Évariste de Parny a French poet.
Feb 9 Rhijnvis Feith Jhr. Rhijnvis Feith was a Dutch poet
Feb 9 Václav Matěj Kramerius a Czech publisher, journalist and writer, one of the most important early figures of the Czech National Revival.
Feb 12 François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers the French commander in the Battle of the Nile, in which the French Revolutionary Navy was defeated by Royal Navy forces under Admiral Horatio Nelson. The British victory helped to ensure their naval supremacy throughout the Napoleonic Wars. He was also a Freemason in the La Bonne Foi lodge at Montauban
Feb 20 Louis-Alexandre Berthier a Marshal and Vice-Constable of France beginning in 1808, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon.
Feb 24 Henri-Pierre Danloux a French painter and draftsman.
Mar 1 Alleyne FitzHerbert 1st Baron St Helens a British diplomat. He was a friend of explorer George Vancouver, who named Mount Helens in what is now Washington after him
Mar 8 William Roscoe an English historian, leading abolitionist and miscellaneous writer, perhaps best known today as an early abolitionist and for his poem for children The Butterfly's Ball, and the Grasshopper's Feast.
Mar 9 Jean Baptiste Kléber a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. His military career started in Habsburg service, but his plebeian ancestry hindered his opportunities. Eventually, he volunteered for the French Army in 1792, and rose through the ranks
Mar 12 Justus Christian Loder a German anatomist and surgeon who was a native of Riga.
Mar 12 Jean Denis comte Lanjuinais a French politician, lawyer, jurist, journalist, and historian.
Mar 13 József Fabchich a Hungarian writer and translator, known mainly for his translations of Ancient Greek poetry into the Hungarian language.
Mar 13 Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon-Penthièvre Duchess of Orléans the daughter of Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre and of Princess Maria Theresa Felicitas of Modena. At the death of her brother, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre, prince de Lamballe, she became the wealthiest heiress in France prior to the French Revolution. She married Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, the "regicide" Philippe Égalité, and was the mother of France's last king, Louis Philippe I, King of the French. She was sister-in-law to the princesse de Lamballe, and was the last member of the Bourbon-Penthièvre family
Mar 26 Benjamin Thompson an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part of the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics. He also served as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Loyalist forces in America during the American Revolutionary War. After the end of the war he moved to London where his administrative talents were recognized when he was appointed a full Colonel, and in 1784 received a knighthood from King George III. A prolific designer, he also drew designs for warships. He later moved to Bavaria and entered government service there, being appointed Bavarian Army Minister and re-organizing the army, and, in 1791, was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire
Apr 1 Joseph de Maistre a Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat. He defended hierarchical societies and a monarchical State in the period immediately following the French Revolution. Maistre was a subject of the King of Piedmont-Sardinia, whom he served as member of the Savoy Senate , ambassador to Russia , and minister of state to the court in Turin
Apr 23 François Joseph Bouvet a French admiral.
Apr 28 Franz Karl Achard a German chemist, physicist and biologist. His principal discovery was the production of sugar from sugar beets
May 4 Nikolay Lvov a Russian artist of the Age of Enlightenment. Lvov, an amateur of Rurikid lineage, was a polymath who contributed to geology, history, graphic arts and poetry, but is known primarily as an architect and ethnographer, compiler of the first significant collection of Russian folk songs
May 12 George Gleig a Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church.
May 13 Lazare Carnot a French politician, engineer, and mathematician.
May 31 Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud a lawyer and statesman, and a significant figure of the French Revolution. A deputy to the Assembly from Bordeaux, Vergniaud was a notably eloquent orator. He was a supporter of Jacques Pierre Brissot and the Girondist faction
Jun 10 William Eustis an early American physician, politician, and statesman from Massachusetts. Trained in medicine, he served as a military surgeon during the American Revolutionary War, notably at the Battle of Bunker Hill. He resumed medical practice after the war, but soon entered politics
Jun 14 Louis I Grand Duke of Hesse Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and later the first Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine.
Jun 24 William Hull an American soldier and politician. He fought in the American Revolution, was Governor of Michigan Territory , and a general in the War of 1812, for which he is best remembered for surrendering Fort Detroit to the British on August 16, 1812
Jun 26 Antoine de Rivarol a Royalist French writer during the Revolutionary era.
Jun 28 Anton Stadler an Austrian clarinet and basset horn player for whom Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote both his Clarinet Quintet and Clarinet Concerto.
Jul 4 Jean-Pierre Blanchard a French inventor, best known as a pioneer in balloon flight.
Jul 9 William Waldegrave 1st Baron Radstock the Governor of Newfoundland and an Admiral in the Royal Navy.
Jul 25 Santiago de Liniers 1st Count of Buenos Aires a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He is more widely known by the Spanish form of his name, Santiago de Liniers. He was popularly regarded as the hero of the reconquest of Buenos Aires after the first British invasion of the Río de la Plata, which led to his designation as viceroy, replacing Rafael de Sobremonte. Such a thing, the replacement of a viceroy without the King's direct intervention, was completely unprecedented. He was confirmed in office by Charles IV of Spain, and endured a second ill-fated British Invasion attempt and a mutiny that sought to replace him. He was replaced in 1809 by Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, appointed as viceroy by the Junta of Seville, and retired from public activity. However, when the May Revolution took place, Liniers decided to come out of his retirement and organized a monarchist uprising in Córdoba. However, Liniers was defeated, captured, and executed without trial
Jul 27 Christian Jakob Kraus a German comparative and historical linguist.
Aug 6 François Levaillant a French author, explorer, naturalist, zoological collector, and noted ornithologist. He described many new species of birds based on collection he made in Africa and several birds are named after him. He was among the first to use colour plates for illustrating birds and opposed the use of binomial nomenclature introduced by Linnaeus, preferring instead to use descriptive French names such as the bateleur for the distinctive African eagle
Aug 10 Edmund Randolph an American attorney, the seventh Governor of Virginia, the second Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General.
Aug 10 George Cranfield Berkeley a highly experienced, popular, yet controversial naval officer and politician in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Britain. Serving on several ships, Cranfield-Berkeley saw action at all three Battles of Ushant, commanded fleets in the West Indies and off Ireland and governed the supply routes to Portugal and Spain which kept Wellington's armies in the field during the Peninsula War. He also enjoyed an extensive political career, reforming military practices in Britain and participating in several prominent scandals including feuds with Charles James Fox and Hugh Palliser
Aug 11 Thomas Bewick an English engraver and natural history author. Early in his career he took on all kinds of work such as engraving cutlery, making the wood blocks for advertisements, and illustrating children's books. Gradually he turned to illustrating, writing and publishing his own books, gaining an adult audience for the fine illustrations in A History of Quadrupeds
Aug 17 Josef Dobrovský a Bohemian philologist and historian, one of the most important figures of the Czech national revival.
Aug 19 Anne Nompar de Caumont a mistress of the Count of Provence, who later became Louis XVIII.
Aug 24 Alexander Korsakov a Russian general remembered as an unlucky assistant to Alexander Suvorov during his Swiss expedition of 1799–1800.
Aug 24 Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux a deputy to the National Convention during the French Revolution. He later served as a prominent leader of the French Directory
Aug 26 Princess Joséphine of Lorraine a princess of the House of Lorraine and by marriage the Princess of Carignan. She was the paternal grandmother of King Charles Albert of Sardinia, from whom the modern royal house of Italy descends
Sep 2 Sir John Borlase Warren 1st Baronet an English admiral, politician and diplomat. Born in Stapleford, Nottinghamshire, he was the son and heir of John Borlase Warren of Stapleford and Little Marlow. He entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge in 1769, but in 1771 entered the Royal Navy as an able seaman; in 1774 he became member of Parliament for Great Marlow; and in 1775 he was created a baronet, the baronetcy held by his ancestors, the Borlases, having become extinct in 1689
Sep 2 Marie Joséphine of Savoy the wife of the future King Louis XVIII of France. She was a princess of Savoy by birth, became Countess of Provence upon her marriage in 1771, and then titular Queen of the French when her husband's nephew, the titular King Louis XVII of France, died in 1795
Sep 10 John Soane an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style. The son of a bricklayer, he rose to the top of his profession, becoming professor of architecture at the Royal Academy and an official architect to the Office of Works. He received a knighthood in 1831
Sep 29 Johann Gottfried Schicht a German composer and conductor.
Oct 11 Frederick Hereditary Prince of Denmark heir presumptive to the thrones of Denmark and Norway. He was the surviving son of King Frederick V by his second wife, Juliana Maria of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
Oct 16 Johann Gottfried Eichhorn a German Protestant theologian of the Enlightenment and an early orientalist.
Oct 18 Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès a French lawyer and statesman during the French Revolution and the First Empire, best remembered as the author of the Napoleonic Code, which still forms the basis of French civil law.