Born in 1754

Jan 1 Vasily Zuyev a Russian naturalist and traveler, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
Jan 2 Franciszek Zabłocki considered the most distinguished Polish comic dramatist and satirist of the Enlightenment period. He descends from an old aristocratic family of Poland with coat of arms Łada. He translated many French comedies, among others those by Molière, but also wrote his own plays concentrating on Polish issues
Jan 9 Peter P. Dubrovsky a Russian bibliophile, diplomat, paleographer, secretary of the Russian Embassy in France, collector of manuscripts and books. Throughout his life he collected about 2000 manuscripts. Between 1805 and 1812 he worked at the Imperial Public Library
Jan 15 Jacques Pierre Brissot a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution. Some sources give his name as Jean Pierre Brissot
Jan 15 Richard Martin (Irish politician) an Irish politician and campaigner against cruelty to animals. He was commonly known as "Humanity Dick", a nickname bestowed on him by King George He succeeded in getting the pioneering Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822, nicknamed 'Martin's Act', passed into British law
Jan 24 Andrew Ellicott a U.S. surveyor who helped map many of the territories west of the Appalachians, surveyed the boundaries of the District of Columbia, continued and completed Pierre Charles L'Enfant's work on the plan for Washington, D.C., and served as a teacher in survey methods for Meriwether Lewis.
Jan 26 Jean Baron de Batz a French royalist and businessman. He was born in Goutz-les-Tartas , and died in Chadieu, near Vic-le-Comte
Jan 29 Moses Cleaveland a lawyer, politician, soldier, and surveyor from Connecticut who founded the U.S. city of Cleveland, Ohio, while surveying the Western Reserve in 1796.
Jan 30 John Lansing Jr. an American lawyer and politician. He was the uncle of Gerrit Lansing
Feb 15 Pierre Louis Roederer a French politician, economist, and historian, politically active in the era of the French Revolution and First French Republic. Roederer's son, Baron Antoine Marie Roederer , also became a noted political figure
Feb 17 Nicolas Baudin a French explorer, cartographer, naturalist and hydrographer.
Feb 19 Vincenzo Monti an Italian poet, playwright, translator, and scholar.
Feb 19 Matteo Babini a leading Italian tenor of the late 18th-century, and a teacher of singing and stage art.
Mar 15 Archibald Menzies a Scottish surgeon, botanist and naturalist.
Mar 17 Madame Roland Marie-Jeanne Phlippon Roland, better known simply as Madame Roland and born Marie-Jeanne Phlippon , was, together with her husband Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière, a supporter of the French Revolution and influential member of the Girondist faction. She fell out of favour during the Reign of Terror and died on the guillotine
Mar 20 Alexander Shishkov a Russian statesman, writer, and admiral.
Mar 23 Jurij Vega a Slovene mathematician, physicist and artillery officer.
Mar 29 Osip Kozodavlev a Russian statesman, politician and Minister of the Interior from March 31 of 1810 to June 24 of 1819.
Mar 30 Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier a French chemistry and physics teacher, and one of the first pioneers of aviation. He and the Marquis d'Arlandes made the first manned free balloon flight on 21 November 1783, in a Montgolfier balloon. He later died when his balloon crashed near Wimereux in the Pas-de-Calais during an attempt to fly across the English Channel. He and his companion, Pierre Romain, became the first known fatalities in an air crash
Apr 3 Nikolay Rumyantsev Russia's Foreign Minister and Imperial Chancellor in the run-up to Napoleon's invasion of Russia. He was the son of Field Marshal Pyotr Zadunaisky from the Rumyantsev comital family
Apr 6 Frédéric-César de La Harpe a Swiss political leader and Vaudois patriot, who played a leading role in the creation of the Helvetic Republic.
Apr 17 Nikolay Mordvinov one of the most reputable Russian political thinkers of Alexander I's reign. He is associated with the reforms of Mikhail Speransky, who he advised on the ways to improve the performance of the national economy
Apr 22 José Antonio Pavón Jiménez a Spanish botanist known for researching the flora of Peru and Chile.
Apr 29 Ferenc Széchényi the founder of the Hungarian National Library and National Museum in Budapest. The library is named after him the National Széchényi Library. He was the father of István Széchenyi
May 2 Vicente Martín y Soler a Spanish composer of opera and ballet. Although relatively obscure now, in his own day he was compared favorably with his contemporary, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, as a composer of opera buffa; in modern times, conversely, he has been called the Valencian Mozart
May 7 Joseph Joubert a French moralist and essayist, remembered today largely for his Pensées , which was published posthumously.
May 10 Asmus Jacob Carstens a Danish-German painter, one of the most committed artists of German Neoclassicism. His career was erratic, partly because of his difficult personality, and the majority of his large projects were left incomplete, or subsequently destroyed. Much of what survives is in the form of drawings, many using "a schematic, pale colouring as a timid and humble accessory to the dominating figure-drawing", that were planned for large fresco commissions that never materialized
May 12 Franz Anton Hoffmeister a German composer and music publisher.
May 14 António de Araújo e Azevedo 1st Count of Barca a Portuguese statesman, author and amateur botanist.
May 20 Elisa von der Recke a Baltic German writer and poet.
May 31 Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Marshal of France.
May 31 Andrea Appiani an Italian neoclassical painter.
Jun 1 Ferdinand Duke of Breisgau a son of Holy Roman Emperor Franz I and Maria Theresa of Austria. He was the founder of the House of Austria-Este and Governor of the Duchy of Milan between 1765 and 1796. He was also designated as the heir to the Duchies of Modena and Reggio, but never reigned owing to the Napoleonic Wars
Jun 4 Miguel de Azcuénaga an Argentine brigadier. Educated in Spain, at the University of Seville, Azucuenaga began his military career in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and became a member of the Primera Junta, the first autonomous government of modern Argentina. He was shortly exiled because of his support to the minister Mariano Moreno, and returned to Buenos Aires when the First Triumvirate replaced the Junta. He held several offices since then, most notably being the first Governor intendant of Buenos Aires after the May Revolution. He died at his country house in 1833
Jun 12 Louis-Charles de Flers La Motte-Ango, vicomte de Flers joined the French Royal army and rose in rank to become a general officer in the French Revolutionary Wars. After serving in the Austrian Netherlands, he was appointed to command the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees. His army suffered several defeats in May and June 1793, but he rallied his troops to win a defensive victory at the Battle of Perpignan in July. The all-powerful Representatives-on-mission arrested him in August 1793 for a minor setback and sent him to Paris under arrest. The Committee of Public Safety executed him by guillotine on trumped up charges in the last days of the Reign of Terror. De Flers is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe
Jun 16 Franz Xaver von Zach a Hungarian astronomer born at Pest, Hungary. He studied physics in Pest, Hungary, and served for some time in the Austrian army. He taught at the University of Lemberg. He lived in Paris in 1780-83, and in London from 1783 to 1786 as tutor in the house of the Saxon ambassador, Hans Moritz von Brühl. In Paris and London he entered the circles of astronomers like Joseph de Lalande, Pierre-Simon Laplace and William Herschel. In 1786 he was appointed by Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg director of the new observatory on Seeberg hill at Gotha, which was finished in 1791. At the close of the 18th century, he organised the "Celestial Police", a group of twenty-four astronomers, to prepare for a systematic search for the "missing planet" predicted by the Titius-Bode law between Mars and Jupiter. Ceres was discovered by accident just as the search was getting underway. Using predictions made of the position of Ceres by Carl Friedrich Gauss, on 31 December 1801/1 January 1802, Zach recovered Ceres after it was lost during its passage behind the Sun. After the death of the duke in 1804, Zach accompanied the duke's widow on her travels in the south of Europe, and the two settled in Genoa in 1815 where he directed the Capodimonte Observatory. He moved back to Paris in 1827 and died there in 1832
Jun 16 Salawat Yulayev a Bashkir national hero who participated in Pugachev's Rebellion.
Jun 19 Jean Baptiste Meusnier a French mathematician, engineer and Revolutionary general. He is best known for Meusnier's theorem on the curvature of surfaces, which he formulated while he was at the École Royale du Génie. He also discovered the helicoid. He worked with Lavoisier on the decomposition of water and the evolution of hydrogen
Jun 20 Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt the daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Henriette Karoline of Palatine-Zweibrücken.
Jun 28 Claude François de Malet born in Dole to an aristocratic family. He was executed by firing squad, six days after staging a failed republican coup d'état as Napoleon I returned from the disastrous Russian campaign in 1812
Jun 29 Ivan Rimsky-Korsakov a Russian courtier and lover of Catherine the Great from 1778 to 1779.
Jul 11 Thomas Bowdler an English physician and philanthropist, best known for publishing The Family Shakspeare, an expurgated edition of William Shakespeare's work, edited by his sister Henrietta Maria Bowdler, intended to be more appropriate for 19th century women and children than the original. Although early editions of the work were published with the spelling "Shakspeare", after Bowdler's death, later editions adopted the spelling "Shakespeare", reflecting changes in the standard spelling of Shakespeare's name
Jul 20 Antoine Destutt de Tracy a French Enlightenment aristocrat and philosopher who coined the term "ideology".
Jul 21 Ernst von Rüchel a Prussian general who led an army corps in a crushing defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Jena on 14 October 1806. He commanded troops from the Kingdom of Prussia in several battles during the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793 and 1794. Afterward he held various appointments as a diplomat and a military inspector. In 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars he held an important army command but has been criticized for his actions at Jena. Wounded, he managed to escape the French pursuit, but never commanded troops in combat again
Jul 24 Jean Baptiste marquis de Traversay a French creole seaman who distinguished himself in the ranks of Royal French Navy during American Revolutionary War. In 1791, fleeing from hostilities of the French Revolution, Traversay joined Imperial Russian Navy, rising to commander-in-chief of Black Sea Fleet in 1802. In 1809 he was appointed Minister of the Navy, and held this position for 18 years. His name was frequently russified to Ivan Ivanovich de Traversay
Jul 28 Abraham Niclas Edelcrantz a Finnish born Swedish poet and inventor. He was a member of the Swedish Academy, chair 2, from 1786 to 1821
Aug 1 Seraphim of Sarov one of the most renowned Russian monks and mystics in the Eastern Orthodox Church. He is generally considered the greatest of the 19th century startsy. Seraphim extended the monastic teachings of contemplation, theoria and self-denial to the layperson. He taught that the purpose of the Christian life was to acquire the Holy Spirit. Perhaps his most popular quotation amongst Orthodox believers is "Acquire a peaceful spirit, and thousands around you will be saved."
Aug 2 Pierre Charles L'Enfant a French-born American architect and civil engineer best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D.C., the L'Enfant Plan.
Aug 8 Hipólito Ruiz López a Spanish botanist known for researching the floras of Peru and Chile during an expedition under Carlos III from 1777 to 1788. During the reign of Carlos III, three major botanical expeditions were sent to the New World; Ruiz and José Antonio Pavón Jiménez were the botanists for the first of these expeditions, to Peru and Chile
Aug 8 Luigi Marchesi an Italian castrato singer, one of the most prominent and charismatic to appear in Europe during the second half of the eighteenth century.