Born in 1755

Jan 4 Louis Ramond de Carbonnières a French politician, geologist and botanist. He is regarded as one of the first explorers of the high mountains of the Pyrenees who can be described as a pyrénéiste
Jan 7 Stephen Groombridge a British merchant and astronomer.
Jan 11 Alexander Hamilton a founding father of the United States, chief staff aide to General George Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the U.S. Constitution, the founder of the nation's financial system, and the founder of the first political party
Jan 17 Peter I Grand Duke of Oldenburg the Regent of the Duchy of Oldenburg for his incapacitated cousin Peter Frederick William from 1785 to 1823, and then served himself as Duke from 1823-1829.
Jan 20 Sir Albemarle Bertie 1st Baronet a long-serving and at time controversial officer of the British Royal Navy who saw extensive service in his career but also courted controversy with several of his actions.
Jan 25 Paolo Mascagni an Italian physician, known for his study of human anatomy, in particular for the first complete description of the lymphatic system.
Jan 28 Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring a German physician, anatomist, anthropologist, paleontologist and inventor. Sömmerring discovered the macula in the retina of the human eye. His investigations on the brain and the nervous system, on the sensory organs, on the embryo and its malformations, on the structure of the lungs, etc., made him one of the most important German anatomists
Jan 29 Nicolas Fuss a Swiss mathematician, living most of his life in Russia.
Feb 14 Henry Phipps 1st Earl of Mulgrave a British soldier and politician. He notably served as Foreign Secretary under William Pitt the Younger from 1805 to 1806
Feb 14 Charles Louis Hereditary Prince of Baden heir apparent of the Margraviate of Baden. He was born in Karlsruhe
Feb 16 Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülow a Prussian general of the Napoleonic Wars.
Feb 17 Thomas Truxtun an American naval officer after the Revolutionary War, when he served as a privateer, who rose to the rank of commodore in the late eighteenth century and later served in the Quasi-War with France and the First Barbary War in North Africa. He was one of the first six commanders appointed to the new US Navy by President Washington. During his naval career he commanded a number of famous US naval ships including USS Constellation and USS President. Later in civilian life he became involved with politics and was also elected Sheriff
Feb 17 Charles Manners-Sutton a priest in the Church of England who served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1805 to 1828.
Feb 18 James Hamilton 7th Duke of Hamilton a short-lived Scottish peer.
Feb 25 François René Mallarmé a French statesman of the French Revolution and a supporter of Napoleon Bonaparte and the French Empire. His career is of particular interest because he was among political figures such as Joseph Fouché who at first aggressively supported the Terror, only to betray its leaders and support the various conservative reactionary régimes that followed. His was a chevalier de l'Empire from 22 November 1808 and a baron de l'Empire from 31 January 1810
Mar 2 Antoine-Frédéric Gresnick a Belgian classical composer. He was born in Liège. He studied music in Naples. By 1780 Gresnick was working in Lyons and, after visiting Berlin and London, he moved in 1794 to Paris where he died in 1799. He is chiefly remembered for writing opera buffa, of which he wrote at least twenty-three
Mar 5 Jozef Ignác Bajza an ethnically Slovak writer, satirist and Catholic priest in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Mar 6 Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian a French poet and romance writer.
Mar 24 Rufus King an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress. He also attended the Constitutional Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He represented New York in the United States Senate, served as Minister to Britain, and was the Federalist candidate for both Vice President and President of the United States
Apr 7 Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur vicomte de Rochambeau a French soldier, the son of Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau.
Apr 10 Samuel Hahnemann a German physician, best known for creating a system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
Apr 11 James Parkinson an English surgeon, apothecary, geologist, palaeontologist, and political activist. He is most famous for his 1817 work, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in which he was the first to describe "paralysis agitans", a condition that would later be renamed Parkinson's disease by Jean-Martin Charcot
Apr 13 Honoré Joseph Antoine Ganteaume a French Navy officer and Vice-admiral.
Apr 16 Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun recognized as the most important female painter of the 18th century.
Apr 27 Marc-Antoine Parseval now known as Parseval's theorem, which presaged the unitarity of the Fourier transform.
May 10 Robert Gray (sea captain) known for his achievements in connection with two trading voyages to the northern Pacific coast of North America, between 1790 and 1793, which pioneered the American maritime fur trade in that region. In the course of those voyages, Gray explored portions of that coast and, in 1790, completed the first American circumnavigation of the world. Perhaps his most remembered accomplishment from his explorations was his coming upon and then naming of the Columbia River, in 1792 while on his second voyage
May 11 Jean-Pierre-André Amar a French political figure of the Revolution and Freemason.
May 12 Giovanni Battista Viotti an Italian violinist whose virtuosity was famed and whose work as a composer featured a prominent violin and an appealing lyrical tunefulness. He was also a director of French and Italian opera companies in Paris and London
May 16 Honoré Flaugergues a French astronomer.
May 21 Alfred Moore a North Carolina judge who became a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Moore Square, a park located in the Moore Square Historic District in Raleigh, North Carolina was named in his honor. Moore County, established in 1784, also in the state of North Carolina, is named in his honor. Moore was buried at the Philip's Church near Wilmington
May 22 Ivan Akimov a Russian painter in the Classical style.
May 30 Collin d'Harleville a French dramatist.
Jun 6 Nathan Hale a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British and executed. He is probably best remembered for his purported last words before being hanged: "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country." Hale has long been considered an American hero and, in 1985, he was officially designated the state hero of Connecticut
Jun 11 Jean Louis Marie Poiret a French clergyman, botanist and explorer.
Jun 15 Antoine François comte de Fourcroy a French chemist and a contemporary of Antoine Lavoisier. Fourcroy collaborated with Lavoisier, Guyton de Morveau, and Claude Berthollet on the Méthode de nomenclature chimique, a work that helped standardize chemical nomenclature
Jun 18 Louise-Rosalie Lefebvre a French operatic mezzo-soprano, actress and dancer.
Jun 24 Anacharsis Cloots a Prussian nobleman who was a significant figure in the French Revolution. He was nicknamed "orator of mankind", "citoyen de l’humanité" and "a personal enemy of God"
Jun 25 Natalia Alexeievna of Russia the first wife of the future Tsar Paul I of Russia, the only son of the Empress Catherine She was born as Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt in Prenzlau, Uckermark, Brandenburg, Prussia as the fifth child of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and his spouse Caroline of Zweibrücken, Countess Palatine.
Jun 30 Paul François Jean Nicolas vicomte de Barras a French politician of the French Revolution, and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795–1799.
Jul 5 Sarah Siddons a Welsh-born English actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. She was the elder sister of John Philip Kemble, Charles Kemble, Stephen Kemble, Ann Hatton and Elizabeth Whitlock, and the aunt of Fanny Kemble. She was most famous for her portrayal of the Shakespearean character, Lady Macbeth, a character she made her own, and for famously fainting at the sight of the Elgin Marbles in London. The Sarah Siddons Society continues to present the Sarah Siddons Award in Chicago every year to a prominent actress
Jul 5 Theodor von Reding born and raised in Switzerland where he commenced his military career. He served in Spain as a governor and general, leading Swiss and Spanish troops against Napoleonic forces and was admired for his leadership and bravery
Jul 6 John Flaxman a British sculptor and draughtsman, and a leading figure in British and European Neoclassicism. Early in his career he worked as a modeller for Josiah Wedgwood's pottery. He spent several years in Rome, where he produced his first book illustrations. He was a prolific maker of funerary monuments
Jul 14 Michel de Beaupuy a French general of the Revolution.
Jul 17 Johann Christoph Wendland a German botanist and gardener born in Petit-Landau, Alsace.
Jul 22 Gaspard de Prony a French mathematician and engineer, who worked on hydraulics. He was born at Chamelet, Beaujolais, France and died in Asnières-sur-Seine, France
Aug 1 Antonio Capuzzi an Italian violinist and composer.
Aug 4 Nicolas-Jacques Conté a French painter, balloonist, army officer, and inventor of the modern pencil.
Aug 10 Narayanrao Peshwa the fifth Peshwa or ruler of the Maratha Empire from November 1772 until his murder in August 1773.He married Gangabai Sathe who later gave birth to Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa.
Aug 13 Hipólito Unanue a physician, naturalist, meteorologist, university professor, independence precursor and a Peruvian politician, active in politics in the early years after independence.
Aug 17 Thomas Stothard an English painter, illustrator and engraver.