Born in 1757

Jan 6 Albrecht Wilhelm Roth a physician and botanist born in Dötlingen, Germany.
Jan 11 Samuel Bentham a noted English mechanical engineer and naval architect credited with numerous innovations, particularly related to naval architecture, including weapons. He was the only surviving sibling of philosopher Jeremy Bentham, with whom he had a close bond
Jan 16 Richard Goodwin Keats a British naval officer who fought throughout the American Revolution, French Revolutionary War and Napoleonic War. He retired in 1812 due to ill health and was made Commodore-Governor of Newfoundland from 1813 to 1816. In 1821 he was made Governor of Greenwich Hospital in Greenwich, London. Keats held the post until his death at Greenwich in 1834. Keats is remembered as a capable and well respected officer. His actions at the Battle of Algeciras Bay became legendary
Jan 18 Sir Charles Pole 1st Baronet Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Morice Pole, 1st Baronet naval officer and colonial governor born England and died Denham Abbey, Hertfordshire, England.
Jan 19 Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf by marriage a duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was born in Saalburg-Ebersdorf. She was the maternal grandmother of Queen Victoria and the paternal grandmother of Albert, Prince Consort
Jan 22 Christian Daniel Beck a German philologist, historian, theologian and antiquarian, one of the most learned men of his time.
Jan 27 Gomes Freire de Andrade a Portuguese officer that served France at his military careers end.
Jan 28 Antonio Bartolomeo Bruni an Italian violinist, composer and conductor. Bruni was born and died in Cuneo, Italy. During most of his life he resided, played and composed in Paris
Jan 30 Landgravine Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt (1757–1830) a German princess. She was the daughter of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. On 3 October 1775 she married duke Charles Augustus of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and as such a member of the court sphere of Weimar Classicism. She was held to be serious and introverted but also compassionate and sympathetic, in the aftermath of the Battle of Jena which guaranteed her part in the later "myth of Weimar"
Feb 3 Joseph Forlenze an Italian ophthalmologist and surgeon, considered one of the most important ophthalmologists between the 18th and the 19th century. He was mostly known in France, during the Napoleonic Empire, for his cataract surgery
Feb 3 Constantin François de Chassebœuf comte de Volney a French philosopher, abolitionist, historian, orientalist, and politician. He was at first surnamed Boisgirais after his father's estate, but afterwards assumed the name of Volney
Feb 14 Kazimierz Nestor Sapieha a Polish-Lithuanian noble and one the creators of the Constitution of May 3.
Feb 20 John 'Mad Jack' Fuller well known as a builder of follies, and as a philanthropist, patron of the arts and sciences, and a supporter of slavery. He purchased and commissioned many paintings from J.M.W. Turner. He was sponsor and mentor to Michael Faraday
Feb 28 Countess Friederike of Schlieben the consort of Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck.
Mar 1 Étienne Pierre Ventenat a French botanist born in Limoges. He was the brother of naturalist Louis Ventenat
Mar 2 Scarlat Ghica a Prince of Moldavia , and twice Prince of Wallachia. He was a member of the Ghica family
Mar 6 Louis-Marcelin de Fontanes a French poet and politician.
Mar 11 James Saumarez 1st Baron de Saumarez an admiral of the British Royal Navy, notable for his victory at the Battle of Algeciras.
Mar 16 Bengt Lidner a Swedish poet, born in Gothenburg. His opera Medea was translated to English and played in England during his lifetime, but wasn't played in Sweden until 2004
Mar 21 James Sowerby an English naturalist and illustrator. Contributions to published works, such as A Specimen of the Botany of New Holland or English Botany, include his detailed and appealing plates. The use of vivid colour and accessible texts were intended to reach a widening audience in works of natural history
Mar 24 James Wilkinson an American soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies. He served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, but was twice compelled to resign. He was twice the Senior Officer of the U.S. Army, appointed first Governor of the Louisiana Territory in 1805, and commanded two unsuccessful campaigns in the Lawrence theater during the War of 1812. After his death, he was discovered to have been a paid agent of the Spanish Crown
Mar 31 Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt a Finnish, Swedish and Russian courtier and diplomat. In Finland, he is considered one of the great Finnish statesmen. Born in Tarvasjoki, Finland, he was the great grandson of Charles XII of Sweden's general, Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. His advice to Russia's Tsar Alexander I was of utmost importance for securing the autonomy of the Grand Duchy of Finland
Apr 9 Michael Bryan (art historian) an English art historian, art dealer and connoisseur. He was involved in the purchase and resale of the great French Orleans Collection of art selling it on to a British syndicate, and owned a fashionable art gallery in Savile Row, London. His book, "Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and Engravers", was a standard reference work throughout the 19th century, and was last republished in 1920; however it is now badly outdated
Apr 9 Wojciech Bogusławski a Polish actor, theater director and playwright of the Polish Enlightenment. He was the director of the National Theatre, Warsaw, , during three distinct periods, as well as establishing a Polish opera. He is considered the "Father of Polish theatre."
Apr 19 Edward Pellew 1st Viscount Exmouth a British naval officer. He fought during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. His younger brother, Israel Pellew, also pursued a naval career
Apr 22 Alessandro Rolla an Italian viola and violin virtuoso, composer, conductor and teacher. His son, Antonio Rolla, was also a violin virtuoso and composer
Apr 22 Josef Grassi an Austrian portrait and history painter. His middle name is usually given as "Maria", although there is evidence that it was actually "Mathias". He is also called "Giuseppe Grassi"
Apr 27 Johann Christoph Röhling a German botanist and clergyman who was a native of Gundernhausen, a town near Darmstadt.
May 15 John Hely-Hutchinson 2nd Earl of Donoughmore an Anglo-Irish politician, hereditary peer and soldier.
May 24 Semyon Gangeblov a Russian military commander of the Napoleonic Wars. He came of the Georgian noble family Gangeblidze , which emigrated to Russia in 1724
May 25 Louis-Sébastien Lenormand a French physicist, inventor and pioneer in parachuting. He is considered the first human to make a witnessed descent with a parachute and is also credited with coining the term parachute. After making a jump from a tree with the help of two modified umbrellas Lenormand refined his contraption and on December 26, 17831 jumped from the tower of the Montpellier observatory in front of a crowd that included Joseph Montgolfier, using a 14 foot parachute with a rigid wooden frame. His intended use for the parachute was to help entrapped occupants of a burning building to escape unharmed. Lenormand was succeeded by André-Jacques Garnerin who made the first parachute descent from high altitude with the help of a non-rigid parachute on October 22, 1797, and his wife Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse who made a similar descent two years later
May 30 Henry Addington 1st Viscount Sidmouth a British statesman, and Prime Minister from 1801 to 1804. He is best known for obtaining the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, an unfavourable peace with France. When that broke down he resumed the war but he was without allies and conducted a relatively weak defensive war. He is also known for his ruthless and efficient crackdown on dissent as Home Secretary 1812-1822
Jun 5 Pierre Jean George Cabanis a French physiologist and materialist philosopher.
Jun 7 Georgiana Cavendish Duchess of Devonshire the first wife of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, and mother of the 6th Duke of Devonshire. Her father, John Spencer, 1st Earl Spencer, was a great-grandson of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. Her niece was Lady Caroline Lamb. She was the great-great-great-great-aunt of Diana, Princess of Wales, and attained a large amount of fame in her lifetime
Jun 8 Ercole Consalvi a deacon and cardinal of the Catholic Church, who served twice as Cardinal Secretary of State for the Papal States and who played a crucial role in the post-Napoleonic reassertion of the legitimist principle of the divine right of kings, of which he was a constant supporter.
Jun 18 Ignaz Pleyel an Austrian-born French composer and piano builder of the Classical period.
Jun 18 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas a member of Argentina's Second Triumvirate from 19 August 1813 to 31 January 1814, after which he served as Supreme Director until 9 January 1815.
Jun 22 George Vancouver an English officer of the British Royal Navy, best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon. He also explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia
Jul 11 Johann Matthäus Bechstein a German naturalist, forester, ornithologist, entomologist, and herpetologist. In Great Britain, he was known for his treatise on singing birds
Jul 20 Garsevan Chavchavadze a Georgian politician and diplomat primarily known as a Georgian ambassador to Imperial Russia.
Jul 30 Dmitry Khvostov a Russian poet, representing the late period of classicism in Russian literature. Count Khvostov, as he was widely known, was an exceedingly prolific author of poems, fables, epigrams, etc., invariably archaic and pompous, making him an easy target for humourists and fellow poets who ridiculed him relentelessly. In modern times much has been done to separate the comical myth from Khvostov's real legacy and give credit to an extraordinary poetry enthusiast , but the stereotype prevails and the name of Count Khvostov remains synonymous in Russia with wanton graphomania and self-important pomposity
Aug 3 François-Xavier-Marc-Antoine de Montesquiou-Fézensac a French clergyman and politician.
Aug 9 Thomas Telford a Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a noted road, bridge and canal builder. After establishing himself as an engineer of road and canal projects in Shropshire, he designed numerous infrastructure projects in his native Scotland, as well as harbours and tunnels. Such was his reputation as a prolific designer of highways and related bridges, he was dubbed The Colossus of Roads, and, reflecting his command of all types of civil engineering in the early 19th century, he was elected as the first President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, a post he retained for 14 years until his death
Aug 20 Friedrich Karl Ludwig Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck the fifth and penultimate Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. Friedrich Karl Ludwig was the son of Prince Karl Anton August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and his wife Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Schlodien
Aug 21 Gustaf von Paykull a Swedish friherre and hovmarskalk , ornithologist and entomologist.
Aug 23 Marie Magdalene Charlotte Ackermann a German actress. She was the daughter of the actors Konrad Ernst Ackermann and Sophie Charlotte Ackermann
Sep 3 Karl August Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach a Duke of Saxe-Weimar and of Saxe-Eisenach from 1758, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from its creation in 1809, and Grand Duke from 1815 until his death. He is noted for the intellectual brilliance of his court
Sep 6 August Friedrich Ernst Langbein a German humor writer.
Sep 6 Gilbert du Motier Marquis de Lafayette a French aristocrat and military officer who fought for the United States in the American Revolutionary War, and was a close friend of George Washington. Lafayette was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830
Sep 22 Jean-Baptiste Cyrus de Valence Timbrune de Thiembronne, Comte de Valence commanded French troops during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. A nobleman, he joined the French Royal Army as a captain of cavalry in 1778. By the time of the French Revolution he commanded a cavalry regiment. Valence led troops at Valmy in 1792 and was soon appointed to command the Army of the Ardennes. He led the right wing at Neerwinden. Becoming involved in Charles Francois Dumouriez's failed plot to seize control of the army, he defected in April 1793