Died in 1757

Jan 9 Louis Bertrand Castel a French mathematician born in Montpellier, and entered the order of the Jesuits in 1703. Having studied literature, he afterwards devoted himself entirely to mathematics and natural philosophy. He wrote several scientific works, that which attracted most attention at the time being his Optique des couleurs , or treatise on the melody of colors. He also wrote Traité de physique sur la pesanteur universelle des corps , Mathématique universelle , and a critical account of the system of Sir Isaac Newton in 1743
Jan 9 Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle a French author. Isaiah Berlin said Fontenelle "was the most civilized man of his time, and indeed of most times." In 1935, the lunar crater Fontenelle was named after him
Jan 19 Thomas Ruddiman a Scottish classical scholar.
Feb 5 Horatio Walpole 1st Baron Walpole a son of Robert Walpole of Houghton, Norfolk, and a younger brother of the Prime Minister of Great Britain Sir Robert Walpole.
Mar 1 Edward Moore (dramatist) born at Abingdon, Berkshire.
Mar 6 Thomas Blackwell (scholar) a classical scholar, historian and "one of the major figures in the Scottish Enlightenment.".
Mar 14 John Byng a Royal Navy officer. After joining the navy at the age of thirteen, he participated at the Battle of Cape Passaro in 1718. Over the next thirty years he built up a reputation as a solid naval officer and received promotion to Vice-Admiral in 1747
Mar 23 Thomas Herring Archbishop of Canterbury from 1747 to 1757.
Mar 27 Johann Stamitz a Czech composer and violinist. His two surviving sons, Carl and Anton Stamitz, were scarcely less important composers of the Mannheim school, of which Johann is considered the founding father. His music is stylistically transitional between Baroque and Classical periods
Mar 28 Robert-François Damiens a French domestic servant whose attempted assassination of King Louis XV of France in 1757 culminated in his notorious and controversial public execution. He was the last person to be executed in France by drawing and quartering, the traditional and gruesome form of death penalty used for regicides
Apr 15 Rosalba Carriera a Venetian Rococo painter. In her younger years, she specialized in portrait miniatures. She later became known for her pastel work, a medium appealing to Rococo styles for its soft edges and flattering surfaces
Apr 16 Daniel Gran a painter born in Vienna in 1694 who died at Sankt Pölten in 1757. His pictures ornament several public buildings in his native city. He was of some consideration in his time, but his works are not known out of Austria and Germany today
May 6 Charles FitzRoy 2nd Duke of Grafton an Irish and English politician.
May 6 Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall, one of the leading commanders under Frederick the Great.
Jun 5 Princess Bernardina Christina Sophia of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach a Princess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach by birth and Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt by marriage.
Jun 26 Maximilian Ulysses Browne an Austrian military leader during the middle of the 18th century, and a scion of the Irish "Wild Geese".
Jun 28 Sophia Dorothea of Hanover a Queen consort in Prussia as wife of Frederick William She was the sister of George II of Great Britain and the mother of Frederick II of Prussia.
Jul 2 Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach a Duchess of Württemberg by marriage.
Jul 2 Siraj ud-Daulah the last independent Nawab of Bengal. The end of his reign marked the start of British East India Company rule over Bengal and later almost all of South Asia
Jul 23 Domenico Scarlatti an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families. He is classified primarily as a Baroque composer chronologically, although his music was influential in the development of the Classical style and he was one of the few Baroque composers to transition into the classical period. Like his renowned father Alessandro Scarlatti, he composed in a variety of musical forms, although today he is known mainly for his 555 keyboard sonatas
Aug 5 Antoine Pesne a French-born court painter of Prussia. Starting in the manner of baroque, he became one of the fathers of rococo in painting
Aug 6 Ádám Mányoki one of the most significant Hungarian Baroque painters of the 18th century.
Aug 21 Johann Samuel König a mathematician. Johann Bernoulli instructed both König and Pierre Louis Maupertuis as pupils during the same period. König is remembered largely for his disagreements with Leonhard Euler, concerning the principle of least action. He is also remembered as a tutor to Émilie du Châtelet, one of the few female physicists of the 18th century
Aug 28 David Hartley (philosopher) an English philosopher and founder of the Associationist school of psychology.
Sep 8 Hans Karl von Winterfeldt born at Vanselow Castle in Swedish Pomerania, he was Lord of several estates. His education was imperfect, and in later life he always regretted his want of familiarity with the French language. He entered the cuirassier regiment of his uncle, Major-General von Winterfeld until 1720, and was promoted cornet after two years service. But he was fortunate enough, by his stature and soldierly bearing, to attract the notice of Frederick William I, who transferred him to the so-called giant regiment of grenadiers as a lieutenant. Before long he became a personal aide-de-camp to the king, and in 1732 he was sent with a party of selected non-commissioned officers to assist in the organization of the Russian army
Sep 28 Andrea Zani an Italian violinist and composer.
Oct 17 René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur a French scientist who contributed to many different fields, especially the study of insects. He introduced the Réaumur temperature scale
Oct 25 Antoine Augustin Calmet O.S.B. a French Benedictine monk, was born at Ménil-la-Horgne, then in the Duchy of Bar, part of the Holy Roman Empire
Oct 30 Edward Vernon an English naval officer. Vernon was born in Westminster and went to Westminster School. He joined the Royal Navy in 1700 and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1702. After five years as Lieutenant, he was appointed Captain in 1706. His first command was the HMS Rye, part of the fleet of Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell
Oct 30 Osman III the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757.
Nov 17 Maria Josepha of Austria born an Archduchess of Austria, and from 1711 to 1713 was heiress presumptive to the Habsburg Empire. By her marriage to Augustus of Saxony she was the Electress of Saxony and Queen consort of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Dec 28 Princess Caroline of Great Britain the fourth child and third daughter of George II.