Born in 1758

Jan 11 François Louis Bourdon a French politician of the Revolutionary period and procureur at the parlement of Paris.
Jan 12 Dmitry Gorchakov a Russian writer, dramatist and poet, best known for his satirical verses and three comical operas, staged at the end of the 18th century.
Jan 20 Marie-Anne Paulze Lavoisier a French chemist. She was the wife of Antoine Lavoisier , and acted as his laboratory assistant and contributed to his work
Feb 1 Jacques Antoine Marie de Cazalès a French orator and politician.
Feb 1 Ludwig Gotthard Kosegarten a German poet and Lutheran preacher.
Feb 1 Agustín de Betancourt a prominent Spanish-Canarian engineer, who worked in Spain, France and Russia. His work ranged from steam engines and balloons to structural engineering and urban planning. As an educator, Betancourt founded and managed the Spanish Corps of Engineers and the Saint Petersburg Institute of Communications Engineers. As an urban planner and construction manager, Betancourt supervised planning and construction in Saint Petersburg, Kronstadt, Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities
Feb 3 Valentin Vodnik a Carniolan priest, journalist and poet of Slovene descent. He was active in the late Enlightenment period
Feb 4 Pierre Gardel a French ballet dancer, ballet master, violinist, and composer. He was the younger brother of Maximilien Gardel, seventeen years his senior. In 1795 he married the dancer Marie Miller, whom he showcased in many of his works
Feb 6 Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz a Polish poet, playwright and statesman. He was a leading advocate for the Constitution of 3 May 1791
Feb 7 Benedikt Schack a composer and tenor of the Classical era, a close friend of Mozart and the first performer of the role of Tamino in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute.
Feb 23 Vasily Kapnist a Russian and Ukrainian poet and playwright who wrote in somewhat rough Russian.
Mar 9 Franz Joseph Gall a neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.
Apr 4 Pierre-Paul Prud'hon a French Romantic painter and draughtsman best known for his allegorical paintings and portraits.
Apr 13 Johann von Klenau a field marshal in the Habsburg army. Klenau joined the Habsburg military as a teenager and fought in Austria's wars with the Ottoman Empire, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars, in which he commanded a corps in several important battles
Apr 16 Christian Karl August Ludwig von Massenbach born at Schmalkalden, and educated at Heilbronn and Stuttgart, devoting himself chiefly to mathematics.
Apr 19 William Carnegie 7th Earl of Northesk born at Bruntsfield in Edinburgh to Admiral George Carnegie, 6th Earl of Northesk and Anne Melville.
Apr 22 Francisco Javier Castaños 1st Duke of Bailén a Spanish general during the Peninsular War.
Apr 28 James Monroe the fifth President of the United States. Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation. He was of French and Scottish descent. Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, Monroe was of the planter class and fought in the American Revolutionary War. He was wounded in the Battle of Trenton with a musket ball to his shoulder. After studying law under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783, he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress. As an anti-federalist delegate to the Virginia convention that considered ratification of the United States Constitution, Monroe opposed ratification, claiming it gave too much power to the central government. He took an active part in the new government, and in 1790 he was elected to the Senate of the first United States Congress, where he joined the Jeffersonians. He gained experience as an executive as the Governor of Virginia and rose to national prominence as a diplomat in France, when he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. During the War of 1812, Monroe held the critical roles of Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James Madison
Apr 29 Georg Carl von Döbeln a Swedish friherre , Lieutenant General and war hero.
Apr 30 Emmanuel Vitale a Maltese notary, commander and statesman. During the Siege of Malta , he commanded 10,000 irregular Maltese soldiers
May 6 Maximilien de Robespierre a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential of the radical Jacobin faction of the French Revolution that was responsible for the Reign of Terror in 1794.
May 17 Honoré IV Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 12 March 1795 to 16 February 1819. He was the son of Prince Honoré III by his wife, Maria Caterina Brignole, a Genoese noblewoman. After the fall of Napoleon I, he regained control of the principality thanks to a clause added by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord at the Congress of Vienna stating that, "the Prince of Monaco should return to his estates", and passed on his titles to his eldest son, Honoré V, Prince of Monaco
May 17 Sir John St Aubyn 5th Baronet a British Member of Parliament, High Sheriff of Cornwall and Grand Master of the Freemasons.
Jun 2 Cornelis Rudolphus Theodorus Krayenhoff a physicist, artist, general, hydraulic engineer, cartographer and - against his will and for only a short time - Dutch Minister of War.
Jun 5 André Masséna a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
Jun 18 Robert Bowyer a British miniature painter and publisher.
Jun 19 Raffaello Sanzio Morghen an Italian engraver.
Jun 26 Christian Gottlieb Reichard a German cartographer born in Schleiz, Thuringia. He studied law in Leipzig and subsequently became a city official in Bad Lobenstein
Jun 29 Clotilde Tambroni an Italian philologist, linguist and poet. She was a professor in the Greek language at the University of Bologna in 1793–1798, and a professor in Greek and literature in 1800–1808
Jul 4 Charles d'Abancour a French statesman, minister to Louis XVI.
Jul 20 Marguerite-Élie Guadet a French political figure of the Revolutionary period.
Aug 5 Emperor Go-Momozono the 118th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Aug 10 Armand Gensonné a French politician.
Aug 14 Carle Vernet Antoine Charles Horace Vernet aka. Carle Vernet was a French painter, the youngest child of Claude Joseph Vernet, and the father of Horace Vernet
Aug 24 Duchess Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin a Princess and Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and by marriage Hereditary Princess of Denmark and Norway.
Aug 24 Thomas Picton a British Army officer who fought in a number of campaigns for Britain in the Napoleonic wars. According to the historian Alessandro Barbero, Picton was "respected for his courage and feared for his irascible temperament." The Duke of Wellington called him "a rough foul-mouthed devil", but very capable
Aug 25 Franz Teyber an Austrian Kapellmeister, organist and composer of orchestral and chamber music. Studying at Wagenseil, from 1786 he was director of the Schikaneder theatre company and from 1801 a composer and musical director of the Theater an der Wien. His sisters Elisabeth and Therese were opera singers, and his brother Anton worked as a composer to the Dresden opera and Vienna court
Sep 1 George Spencer 2nd Earl Spencer a British Whig politician. He notably served as Home Secretary from 1806 to 1807 in the Ministry of All the Talents
Sep 6 Pierre-Augustin Hulin a French general under Napoleon Bonaparte who took part in the storming of the Bastille, the trial of the Duke d'Enghien, and the foiling of the Malet coup.
Sep 10 Hannah Webster Foster an American novelist.
Sep 18 Louis Friant born in the village of Morlancourt, 8 km south of Albert near the river Somme. The village would later suffer the misfortune of lying along the Western Front trench-lines of World War I
Sep 20 Dmitry Ivanovich Lobanov-Rostovsky Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Lobanov-Rostovsky , Russian Prince, statesman and military leader.
Sep 20 Jean-Jacques Dessalines a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1801 constitution. Initially regarded as governor-general, Dessalines later named himself Emperor Jacques I of Haiti. He is regarded as a founding father of Haiti
Sep 21 Christopher Gore a prominent Massachusetts lawyer, Federalist politician, and U.S. diplomat. Born into a family divided by the American Revolution, Gore sided with the victorious Patriots, established a successful law practice in Boston, and built a fortune by purchasing Revolutionary government debts at a discount and receiving full value for them from the government
Sep 21 Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy a French linguist and orientalist. His son, Ustazade Silvestre de Sacy, became a journalist
Sep 25 Josepha Barbara Auernhammer an Austrian pianist and composer.
Sep 26 Cosme Argerich a pioneer of military medical practices in Argentina.
Sep 29 Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership and superb grasp of strategy and unconventional tactics, which resulted in a number of decisive naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded several times in combat, losing one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife and the sight in one eye in Corsica. He was shot and killed during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805
Sep 30 Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov a lover of Catherine II of Russia from 1786 to 1789.
Oct 5 August Lafontaine a German novelist.