Died in 1761

Jan 4 Stephen Hales an English clergyman who made major contributions to a range of scientific fields including botany, pneumatic chemistry and physiology. He invented several devices, including a ventilator, a pneumatic trough and a surgical forceps for the removal of bladder stones. He was also a philanthropist and wrote a popular tract on alcoholic intemperance
Jan 10 Edward Boscawen an Admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament for the borough of Truro, Cornwall. He is known principally for his various naval commands throughout the 18th century and the engagements that he won, including the Siege of Louisburg in 1758 and Battle of Lagos in 1759. He is also remembered as the officer who signed the warrant authorising the execution of Admiral John Byng after Byng's court martial in 1757 after the failure of Byng to engage the enemy at the Battle of Minorca
Jan 18 Archduke Charles Joseph of Austria (1745–1761) the second son of the Habsburg ruler Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Jan 19 Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans the Duchess of Modena and Reggio by marriage. She was the third daughter of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, and of his wife, Françoise-Marie de Bourbon. She was born a princesse du sang. When a married woman, she had ten children
Jan 22 Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet duc de Belle-Isle a French general and statesman.
Jan 28 Francesco Feo an Italian composer, known chiefly for his operas. He was born and died in Naples, where most of his operas were premièred
Feb 1 Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix a French Jesuit priest, traveller and historian, often distinguished as the first historian of New France, which then occupied much of North America known to Europeans.
Feb 6 Clemens August of Bavaria a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria and Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.
Feb 15 Carlo Cecere an Italian composer of operas, concertos and instrumental duets including, for example, some mandolin duets and a concerto for mandolin. Cecere worked in the transitional period between the Baroque and Classical eras
Feb 24 Frederick William Prince of Solms-Braunfels the first Prince of Solms-Braunfels. He was the son of Count William Maurice of Solms-Braunfels and his wife Magdalene Sophie of Hesse-Homburg
Mar 25 Joseph Séguy a French clergyman.
Apr 3 Christian Ferdinand Abel one of the most famous German Baroque violinists, cellists and especially viol virtuosos.
Apr 4 Théodore Gardelle a Swiss painter and enameller.
Apr 7 Thomas Bayes an English statistician, philosopher and Presbyterian minister, known for having formulated a specific case of the theorem that bears his name: Bayes' theorem. Bayes never published what would eventually become his most famous accomplishment; his notes were edited and published after his death by Richard Price
Apr 9 William Law sometimes considered a second-generation non-juror. Thereafter, Law first continued as a simple priest and when that too became impossible without the required oath, Law taught privately, as well as wrote extensively. His personal integrity, as well as mystic and theological writing greatly influenced the evangelical movement of his day as well as Enlightenment thinkers such as the writer Dr Samuel Johnson and the historian Edward Gibbon. Law's spiritual writings remain in print today
Apr 15 William Oldys an English antiquarian and bibliographer.
Apr 15 Archibald Campbell 3rd Duke of Argyll a Scottish nobleman, politician, lawyer, businessman and soldier. He was known as Lord Archibald Campbell from 1703 to 1706, and as the Earl of Ilay from 1706 until 1743, when he succeeded to the dukedom. He was the dominant political leader in Scotland in his day, and was involved in many civic projects
May 14 Thomas Simpson a British mathematician, inventor and eponym of Simpson's rule to approximate definite integrals. The attribution, as often in mathematics, can be debated: this rule had been found 100 years earlier by Johannes Kepler, and in German is the so-called Keplersche Fassregel
Jun 2 Jonas Alströmer a pioneer of agriculture and industry in Sweden.
Jun 14 Johann Daniel Schumacher the secretary of the Russian Academy of Sciences and director of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Empire.
Jun 22 Rainiero d'Elci an Italian Cardinal.
Jun 23 Nanasaheb Peshwa the son of Bajirao from his marriage with Kashibai and one of the Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. He contributed heavily to the development of the city of Pune, India. He was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahu himself. At time of his death in 1749, the issueless Shahu made him the Peshwas of Maratha Empire.His career saw some of the best and worst moments of the Maratha empire. Maratha power in India reached its peak under his reign. With able leadership by his family members and other Maratha Generals, the borders of Maratha Empire crossed Peshawar by 1760 However, he is also partly been held responsible for the defeat of the Marathas at the Battle of Panipat
Jul 4 Samuel Richardson an 18th-century English writer and printer. He is best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded , Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady and The History of Sir Charles Grandison. Richardson was an established printer and publisher for most of his life and printed almost 500 different works, including journals and magazines
Jul 9 Carl Gotthelf Gerlach a German organist, who took over the Leipzig Collegium Musicum from Johann Sebastian Bach between 1737 and 1739.
Jul 13 Tokugawa Ieshige the ninth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
Jul 21 Archibald Douglas 1st Duke of Douglas a Scottish nobleman.
Jul 21 Louis Galloche a French painter. A student of Louis de Boullogne, his own students included François Lemoyne, Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher
Jul 29 Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen a Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She served as regent for her son after the death of her spouse
Aug 3 Johann Matthias Gesner a German classical scholar and schoolmaster.
Sep 8 Bernard Forest de Bélidor a French engineer, significant to the development of the science of hydraulics and ballistics.
Sep 19 Pieter van Musschenbroek a Dutch scientist. He was a professor in Duisburg, Utrecht, and Leiden, where he held positions in mathematics, philosophy, medicine, and astrology. He is credited with the invention of the first capacitor in 1746: the Leyden jar. He performed pioneering work on the buckling of compressed struts. Musschenbroek was also one of the first scientists to provide detailed descriptions of testing machines for tension, compression, and flexure testing. An early example of a problem in dynamic plasticity was described in the 1739 paper
Oct 25 Gioacchino Conti an Italian soprano castrato opera singer.
Nov 19 Noël-Antoine Pluche a French priest. He is now known for his Spectacle de la nature, a most popular work of natural history
Nov 30 John Dollond an English optician, known for his successful optics business and his patenting and commercialization of achromatic doublets.
Dec 23 Alastair Ruadh MacDonnell a chief of Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, a Scottish Jacobite who was identified by Andrew Lang as the secret agent "Pickle," who acted as a spy on Prince Charles Edward after 1750.