Died in 1764

Mar 6 Philip Yorke 1st Earl of Hardwicke an English lawyer and politician who served as Lord Chancellor. He was a close confidant of the Duke of Newcastle, Prime Minister between 1754 and 1756 and 1757 until 1762
Mar 16 Frederick Augustus Rutowsky a Saxon Field Marshal who commanded Saxon forces in the Siege of Pirna during the Seven Years' War.
Mar 17 George Parker 2nd Earl of Macclesfield an English peer and astronomer.
Mar 30 Pietro Locatelli an Italian Baroque composer and violinist.
Apr 15 Madame de Pompadour a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to her death. She was trained from childhood to be a mistress, and learned her trade well. She took charge of the king’s schedule and was an indispensable aide and advisor, despite her frail health and many political enemies. She secured titles of nobility for herself and her relatives, and built a network of clients and supporters. She paid careful attention not to alienate the Queen, Marie Leszczyńska. She was a major patron of architecture and decorative arts such as porcelain. She was a patron of the philosophes of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire. Hostile critics at the time said she was responsible for the Seven Years' War, and generally tarred her as a malevolent political influence. Historians are more favourable, emphasizing her successes as a patron of the arts and a champion of French pride
Apr 15 Peder Horrebow a Danish astronomer. Born in Løgstør, Jutland to a poor family of fishermen, Horrebow entered the University of Copenhagen in 1703. He worked his way through grammar school and university by virtue of his technical knowledge: he repaired mechanical and musical instruments and cut seals. He received his MA from the university in 1716, and his MD in 1725. From 1703 to 1707, he served as an assistant to Ole Rømer and lived in Rømer's home. He worked as a household tutor from 1707 to 1711 to a Danish baron, and entered the governmental bureaucracy as an excise writer in 1711
Apr 17 Johann Mattheson a German composer, singer, writer, lexicographer, diplomat and music theorist.
May 3 Francesco Algarotti a Venetian polymath, philosopher, poet, essayist, anglophile, art critic and art collector. He was "one of the first Esprits cavaliers of the age," a man of broad knowledge, an expert in Newtonianism, architecture and music and a friend of most of the leading authors of his times: Voltaire, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, Pierre-Louis de Maupertuis and the atheist Julien Offray de La Mettrie
May 10 Picander the pseudonym of Christian Friedrich Henrici , a German poet and librettist for many of the cantatas which Johann Sebastian Bach composed in Leipzig. Henrici studied law at Wittenberg and Leipzig. He started writing to supplement his income, and continued to write even after he had developed a career as a civil servant
Jun 3 Hans Adolph Brorson a Danish Pietist bishop and hymn writer.
Jun 29 Ralph Allen an entrepreneur and philanthropist, and was notable for his reforms to the British postal system. He was baptised at St Columb Major in Cornwall on 24 July 1693. As a teenager he worked at the Post Office. He moved in 1710 to Bath, where he became a post office clerk, and at the age of 19, in 1712, became the Postmaster of Bath. In 1742 he was elected Mayor of Bath
Jul 7 William Pulteney 1st Earl of Bath sometimes stated to have been Prime Minister, for the shortest term ever , though most modern sources reckon that he cannot be considered to have held the office.
Jul 16 Ivan VI of Russia proclaimed Emperor of Russia in 1740, as an infant, although he never actually reigned. Within less than a year, he was overthrown by the Empress Elizabeth of Russia, Peter I's daughter. Ivan spent the rest of his life as a prisoner and was killed by his guards during an attempt made to free him
Jul 23 Gilbert Tennent a religious leader, born in County Armagh, Ireland. Gilbert was one of the leaders of the Great Awakening of religious feeling in Colonial America, along with Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. His most famous sermon, "On the Danger of an Unconverted Ministry" compared anti-revivalistic ministers to the Pharisees described in the gospels
Sep 1 Sebastiano Conca an Italian painter.
Sep 2 Nathaniel Bliss an English astronomer of the 18th century, serving as Britain's fourth Astronomer Royal between 1762 and 1764.
Sep 10 Giovanni Antonio Giay an Italian composer. His compositional output includes 15 operas, 5 symphonies, and a significant amount of sacred music
Sep 12 Jean-Philippe Rameau one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin
Sep 16 Francis Josias Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
Sep 23 Robert Dodsley an English bookseller, poet, playwright, and miscellaneous writer.
Sep 26 Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro a Galician monk and scholar who led the Age of Enlightenment in Spain. He was an energetic popularizer noted for encouraging scientific and empirical thought in an effort to debunk myths and superstitions
Oct 2 William Cavendish 4th Duke of Devonshire a British Whig statesman who was briefly nominal Prime Minister of Great Britain. He was the first son of William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire and Catherine Hoskins
Oct 22 Jean-Marie Leclair a Baroque violinist and composer. He is considered to have founded the French violin school. His brothers Jean-Marie Leclair the younger , Pierre Leclair and Jean-Benoît Leclair were also musicians
Oct 23 Emmanuel-Auguste de Cahideuc Comte Dubois de la Motte a French naval officer.
Oct 23 Pierre-Charles Roy a French poet and man of letters, noted for his collaborations with the composers François Francoeur and André Cardinal Destouches, to produce librettos for several opera-ballets, on classical subjects or pseudo-classical pastiches, for seven tragedies, and for his rivalry with the young Voltaire, who immortalised Roy with some disdainful public words.
Oct 26 William Hogarth an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited with pioneering western sequential art.
Nov 20 Christian Goldbach a German mathematician who also studied law. He is remembered today for Goldbach's conjecture
Nov 27 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Menshikov a son of Prince Menshikov who, at one stage, was betrothed to Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeyevna, a granddaughter of Peter the Great. He later served as an officer in the Russian army
Dec 20 Erik Pontoppidan a Danish author, bishop, historian and antiquary. He was educated in Fredericia , after which he was a private tutor in Norway, and then studied in Holland, and in London and Oxford, England. In 1721 he became informator of Frederick Carl of Carlstein , and two years later morning preacher in the castle and afternoon preacher in Nordborg. From 1726 to 1734 he was pastor at Hagenberg, where he so protected the pietists as to find it advisable to defend his course against the Lutherans with Dialogus; oder Unterredung Severi, Sinceri, und Simplicis von der Religion and Reinheit der Lehre and Heller Glaubensspiegel. During this same period he laid the foundation of his later topographical and historical works in Memoria Hafniæ ; Theatrum Daniæ ; and Kurzgefasste Reformationshistorie der dänischen Kirche. Pontoppidan became successively pastor in Hillerød and castle preacher in Frederiksborg , Danish court preacher at Copenhagen , professor extraordinary of theology at the University , and a member of the mission board , meanwhile writing his Everriculum fermenti veteris and Böse Sprichwörter