Born in 1766

Jan 1 Antoine-Vincent Arnault a French dramatist.
Jan 3 Antoine Guillaume Delmas a French Revolutionary and Napoleonic general.
Jan 5 Victor Lahorie a French general who served during the First Empire.
Jan 6 José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia a Paraguayan lawyer and politician, and one of the first leaders of Paraguay following its independence from Spain.
Jan 16 Christoph Friedrich von Ammon a German theological writer and preacher. He was born at Bayreuth, Bavaria and died at Dresden
Jan 25 Hans Christoph Ernst von Gagern born at Kleinniedesheim, near Worms. After studying law at the universities of Leipzig and Göttingen, he entered the service of the Prince of Nassau-Weilburg, whom in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet
Feb 2 Timofei Fedorovic Osipovsky a Russian mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and philosopher. Timofei Osipovsky graduated from the St Petersburg Teachers Seminary
Feb 7 Frederick North 5th Earl of Guilford a British politician and colonial administrator.
Feb 7 Joseph Franz von Jacquin an Austrian scientist who studied medicine, chemistry zoology and botany.
Feb 10 Benjamin Smith Barton an American botanist, naturalist, and physician.
Feb 12 William Howley a clergyman in the Church of England. He served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1828 to 1848
Feb 14 Thomas Robert Malthus an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert
Feb 26 Johann Maass a German psychologist.
Mar 1 Ernst zu Münster a German statesman, politician and minister in the service of the House of Hanover.
Mar 10 Josef Aloys Frölich a German doctor, botanist and entomologist. He is not to be confused with Franz Anton Gottfried Frölich , his son, also an entomologist but specialising in Lepidoptera
Mar 10 Andreas Samuel Krebs a Danish-Norwegian army officer.
Mar 10 Jean-Baptiste Broussier a French Divisional General of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
Mar 12 Claudius Buchanan a Scottish theologian, an ordained minister of the Church of England, and an extremely 'low church' missionary for the Church Missionary Society.
Mar 23 Pierre Antoine Poiteau a French botanist, gardener and botanical artist.
Mar 25 Ludwig Harscher von Almendingen a learned German jurist.
Mar 28 Joseph Weigl an Austrian composer and conductor, born in Eisenstadt, Hungary, Austrian Empire.
Apr 6 Wilhelm von Kobell a German painter, printmaker and teacher.
Apr 10 John Leslie (physicist) a Scottish mathematician and physicist best remembered for his research into heat.
Apr 11 Antoni Michał Potocki the Lieutenant-General of the Crown Army of Poland in 1754, voivode of Belz between 1732 to 1763, and the Lithuanian Great Deputy Master of the Pantry.
Apr 13 Jean Samuel Pauly born as Samuel Johann Pauli, was a famous gunsmith of the early 19th century. Pauly was born at Vechigen near Bern, Switzerland on 13 April 1766
Apr 15 Friedrich Bouterwek born to a mining director at Oker, today a district of Goslar in Lower Saxony, and studied law and philology under Christian Gottlob Heyne and Johann Georg Heinrich Feder at the University of Göttingen.
Apr 17 Collin McKinney a land surveyor, merchant, politician, and lay preacher. He is best known as an important figure in the Texas Revolution, as one of the five individuals who drafted the Texas Declaration of Independence and the oldest person to sign it
Apr 18 Louis Milon a French ballet dancer, choreographer, and ballet master.
Apr 22 Germaine de Staël a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. She was one of Napoleon's principal opponents. Celebrated for her conversational eloquence, she participated actively in the political and intellectual life of her times. Her works, both critical and fictional, made their mark on the history of European Romanticism
Apr 27 Vasily Pushkin a minor Russian poet best known as an uncle of the much more famous Alexander Pushkin.
May 30 Robert Darwin best known as the father of the naturalist Charles Darwin. He was a member of the influential Darwin-Wedgwood family
May 31 John Brewster Jr. a prolific, deaf itinerant painter who produced many charming portraits of well-off New England families, especially their children. He lived much of the latter half of his life in Buxton, Maine, USA, recording the faces of much of Maine's elite society of his time
Jun 4 Giuseppe Cammarano an Italian painter and leader of the Academy of Arts in his birthplace of Sciacca, Sicily.
Jun 5 Gustav Ernst von Stackelberg a Russian diplomat of Baltic-German descent, and was the son of Otto Magnus von Stackelberg.
Jun 9 Anton Weidinger an Austrian trumpet virtuoso in the classical era, and a "k. Hof- und Theater-Trompeter"
Jun 21 Emmanuel comte de Las Cases a French atlas-maker and author, famed for an admiring book on Napoleon.
Jul 5 Jean-Pierre Count of Montalivet a French statesman and Peer of France. He was the father of Camille Bachasson, 3rd Count of Montalivet, Minister of the Interior under Louis-Philippe
Jul 6 Alexander Wilson a Scottish-American poet, ornithologist, naturalist, and illustrator. Identified by George Ord as the "Father of American Ornithology," Wilson is now regarded as the greatest American ornithologist before Audubon
Jul 7 Guillaume Philibert Duhesme a French general during the Napoleonic Wars.
Jul 8 Dominique Jean Larrey a French surgeon in Napoleon's army and an important innovator in battlefield medicine.
Jul 9 Johanna Schopenhauer a German author. She is today known primarily for being the mother of Arthur Schopenhauer
Jul 10 Édouard Jean Baptiste Milhaud a French politician, Général de Division, and comte d'Empire. He is considered one of the best generals of cavalry of Napoleon's army
Jul 17 Joaquín Camacho now Colombia, and participated in the Open Cabildo which declared the Act of Independence, of which he was also a signer. He was executed during the Reign of Terror of Pablo Morillo after the Spanish invasion of New Granada
Jul 20 Thomas Bruce 7th Earl of Elgin a Scottish nobleman and diplomat, known for the removal of marble sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens.
Jul 24 Franz Xaver Niemetschek a Czech philosopher, teacher and music critic. He wrote the first full-length biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart which has remained an important source of information about the composer
Aug 3 Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel a German botanist and physician.
Aug 3 Aaron Chorin a Hungarian rabbi and pioneer of early religious reform. He favored the use of the organ and of prayers in the vernacular, and was instrumental in founding schools along modern lines. Chorin was thus regarded as a leader of the newer Judaism. He also interested himself in public affairs—he took an active part in the efforts for Jewish emancipation, and was very influential with the state authorities
Aug 6 William Hyde Wollaston famous for discovering two chemical elements; he also developed a way to process platinum ore into malleable ingots.
Aug 23 Johann Centurius Hoffmannsegg a German botanist, entomologist and ornithologist.
Aug 26 Pierre Hugues Victoire Merle a French general during the First French Empire of Napoleon. He joined the French army as a private in 1781 but after the French Revolution, the pace of promotion quickened. He was appointed a general officer in 1794 for distinguishing himself during the War of the Pyrenees. After leading a brigade at Austerlitz in December 1805, he was promoted again. His division was in the first wave of the 1808 invasion of Spain, which precipitated the Peninsular War. In Spain, he led his division at Medina de Rioseco, Corunna, First and Second Porto, Bussaco, Sabugal, and Fuentes de Onoro. After being sent home from Spain, Merle was assigned to lead a division in the French invasion of Russia. He led his troops at First and Second Polotsk. He embraced the Bourbon cause in 1814, retired from the army in 1816, and died at Marseilles in 1830. Merle is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe on Column 35