Died in 1766

Jan 1 James Francis Edward Stuart the son of the deposed James II of England and Ireland. As such, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish thrones from the death of his father in 1701, when he was recognised as king of England, Scotland and Ireland by his cousin Louis XIV of France. Following his death in 1766, he was succeeded by his son Charles Edward Stuart in the Jacobite Succession. Had his father not been deposed, there would have been only two monarchs during his lifetime; his father and himself. In reality, there were seven; his father, William III, Mary II, Anne, George I, George II and George III. Although the ruling Protestant Stuarts died out with his half-sister, Queen Anne, the last remaining Stuarts were James and his sons, and their endeavours to reclaim the throne while remaining devoted to their Catholic faith are remembered in history as Jacobitism
Jan 9 Thomas Birch an English historian.
Jan 14 Frederick V of Denmark king of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1746 until his death, son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. "Prudentia et Constantia" was the motto he chose for his reign
Jan 17 Francis Godolphin 2nd Earl of Godolphin a British politician, styled Viscount Rialton between 1706 and 1712.
Jan 19 Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni a French decorator, architect, scene-painter and trompe-l'œil specialist.
Jan 21 James Quin an English actor of Irish descent.
Feb 5 Count Leopold Joseph von Daun born at Vienna, as son of Count Wirich Philipp von Daun.
Feb 23 Stanisław I King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
Mar 3 Gregor Werner an Austrian composer.
Mar 4 Jacques Aved a French painter of the 18th century and one of the main French Rococo portraitists. He painted the Ottoman Empire ambassador to France in 1742, Mehmed Said Efendi
Mar 10 Jane Colden an American botanist,:53-4 described as the "first botanist of her sex in her country" by Asa Gray in 1843. Although not acknowledged in botanical publications, she wrote a number of letters resulting in botanist John Ellis writing to Carl Linnaeus of her work applying the Linnaean system of plant identification to American flora, "she deserves to be celebrated".:54 Contemporary scholarship maintains that she was the first female botanist working in America. She was regarded as a respected botanist by many prominent botanists such as: John Bartram, Peter Collinson, Alexander Garden, and Carolus Linnaeus. Colden is most famous for her manuscript which remains titleless, in which she describes the flora of the New York area, and draws ink drawings of 340 different species of them
Mar 10 Vasilije Petrović the metropolitan bishop of Cetinje. Also, he wrote the history of Montenegro. He ruled together with Sava Petrović, his cousin
Mar 20 Giovanni Battista Pescetti an organist and composer. Born in Venice around 1704, he studied under Antonio Lotti for some time. Having spent some time writing operas in and around Venice, he left for London in 1736, becoming director of the Opera of the Nobility in 1737
Apr 4 John Taylor (classical scholar) born at Shrewsbury in Shropshire.
Apr 7 Johann Albrecht Korff a Russian diplomat, and was the president of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
Apr 7 Tiberius Hemsterhuis a Dutch philologist and critic.
May 5 Jean Astruc a professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and also, with a small anonymously published book, played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis of works of scripture. Astruc was the first to try to demonstrate — using the techniques of textual analysis that were commonplace in studying the secular classics — the theory that Genesis was composed based on several sources or manuscript traditions, an approach that is called the documentary hypothesis
May 6 Thomas Arthur comte de Lally a French General of Irish Jacobite ancestry. Lally commanded French forces, including two battalions of his own red-coated Regiment of Lally of the Irish Brigade, in India during the Seven Years' War. After a failed attempt to capture Madras he lost the Battle of Wandiwash to British forces under Eyre Coote and then was forced to surrender the remaining French post at Pondicherry. After a time spent as a prisoner of war in Britain, Lally voluntarily returned to France to face charges where he was beheaded for his alleged failures in India. Ultimately the jealousies and disloyalties of other officers, together with insufficient resources and limited naval support prevented Lally from securing India for France. In 1778, he was publicly exonerated by Louis XVI of his alleged crime
May 8 Samuel Chandler an English Nonconformist minister.
May 27 Ivan Polzunov a Russian inventor. He created the first steam engine in Russia and the first two-cylinder engine in the world
Jun 24 Adrien Maurice de Noailles a French aristocrat and soldier.
Jul 8 Maria Vittoria of Savoy a legitimated daughter of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, first king of the House of Savoy. Married to the head of a cadet branch of the House of Savoy, she is an ancestor of the kings of Sardinia and of the Savoy kings of Italy
Jul 9 Jonathan Mayhew a noted American minister at Old West Church, Boston, Massachusetts.
Jul 11 Elisabeth Farnese Queen of Spain as the wife of King Philip She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746. From 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent
Jul 14 František Maxmilián Kaňka a Czech architect and builder.
Jul 17 Giuseppe Castiglione (Jesuit) S.J. was an Italian Jesuit lay brother who served as a missionary in China, where he became a painter at the court of the emperor
Sep 3 Archibald Bower a Scottish historian, now noted for his complicated and varying religious faith, and the accounts he gave of it, now considered by scholars to lack credibility.
Sep 11 Andrei Ivanovich Bogdanov one of the first Russian bibliographers and ethnographers.
Sep 13 Benjamin Heath an English classical scholar and bibliophile.
Sep 23 John Brown (essayist) an English divine and author.
Oct 8 Franciszek Bieliński a Polish politician and statesman. A Grand Marshal of the Crown, Marshal of Prussia and a voivode of Chełmno, he is best remembered as a strong proponent of the expansion and the modernisation of the city of Warsaw. He is also the eponym of Marszałkowska Street in Warsaw, one of the major and most iconic streets of Poland's capital
Nov 3 Thomas Abbt a German mathematician and writer.
Nov 7 Jean-Marc Nattier born in Paris, the second son of Marc Nattier , a portrait painter, and of Marie Courtois , a miniaturist. He is noted for his portraits of the ladies of King Louis XV's court in classical mythological attire
Nov 9 Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer a Dutch nobleman who was a diplomat, composer, and administrator. He reorganized the Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order. His most important surviving compositions are the Concerti Armonici, which until 1980 had been misattributed to the Italian composer Giovanni Battista Pergolesi and to Carlo Ricciotti
Dec 3 Giuseppe Nogari an Italian painter of the Rococo. He painted mainly painted half-body portraits, either real or of historical and religious figures. They are striking for their emotional content, subdued decoration and coloration, and often display aged individuals in somewhat homely or shabby attire with a dark background
Dec 12 Johann Christoph Gottsched a German philosopher, author, and critic. For about thirty years, he exercised an almost undisputed literary dictatorship in Germany. But by his later years, his name had become a by-word for foolish pedantry