1768 in history

1768 events chronologically

Feb 29 Polish nobles formed Bar Confederation
Apr 4 In London, Philip Astley stages the first modern circus
May 10 John Wilkes is imprisoned for writing an article for The North Briton severely criticizing King George III. This action provokes rioting in London
Jun 21 James Otis, Jr. offends the King and Parliament in a speech to the Massachusetts General Court
Aug 19 Saint Isaac's Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Aug 25 James Cook begins his first voyage
Aug 26 Captain James Cook sets sail from England on board HMS Endeavour

Top 7 most famous people born in 1768

Jan 7 Joseph Bonaparte the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily , and later King of Spain. After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers
Feb 12 Francis II Holy Roman Emperor the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I , the first Emperor of Austria , ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser in history. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the grace of God elected Roman Emperor, ever Augustus, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both Germany and Austria. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary and Bohemia as Francis He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815
Mar 21 Joseph Fourier a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform and Fourier's Law are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhouse effect
May 17 Caroline of Brunswick Queen of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821. Between 1795 and 1820, she was Princess of Wales
May 30 Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty a French cavalry commander during the French Revolutionary Wars who rose to the rank of General of Division in 1803 and subsequently held important military commands during the Napoleonic Wars.
Sep 4 François-René de Chateaubriand a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian. He is considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature. Descended from an old aristocratic family from Brittany, Chateaubriand was a royalist by political disposition and in an age when a significant part of the intelligentsia was turning against the Church, authored the Génie du christianisme in defence of the Catholic faith. It is his autobiography Mémoires d'outre-tombe , however, that is nowadays generally considered his most accomplished work
Nov 21 Friedrich Schleiermacher a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity. He also became influential in the evolution of Higher Criticism, and his work forms part of the foundation of the modern field of hermeneutics. Because of his profound impact on subsequent Christian thought, he is often called the "Father of Modern Liberal Theology" and is considered an early leader in liberal Christianity. The Neo-Orthodoxy movement of the twentieth century, typically seen to be spearheaded by Karl Barth, was in many ways an attempt to challenge his influence

Top 7 most famous people died in 1768

Mar 3 Nicola Porpora a Neapolitan composer of Baroque operas and teacher of singing, whose most famous singing student was the castrato Farinelli. Other students included composers Matteo Capranica and Joseph Haydn
Mar 18 Laurence Sterne an Anglo-Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman. He is best known for his novels The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy; but he also published many sermons, wrote memoirs, and was involved in local politics. Sterne died in London after years of fighting consumption
Apr 19 Canaletto an Italian painter of landscapes, or vedute, of Venice. He was also an important printmaker in etching
Jun 8 Johann Joachim Winckelmann a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology", Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history. His would be the decisive influence on the rise of the neoclassical movement during the late 18th century. His writings influenced not only a new science of archaeology and art history but Western painting, sculpture, literature and even philosophy. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art was one of the first books written in German to become a classic of European literature. His subsequent influence on Lessing, Herder, Goethe, Hölderlin, Heine, Nietzsche, George, and Spengler has been provocatively called "the Tyranny of Greece over Germany."
Jun 24 Marie Leszczyńska a queen consort of France. She was a daughter of King Stanisław I of Poland and Catherine Opalińska. She married King Louis XV of France and was the grandmother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, and Charles She was the longest-serving queen consort of France
Oct 31 Francesco Maria Veracini an Italian composer and violinist, perhaps best known for his sets of violin sonatas. As a composer, according to Manfred Bukofzer, "His individual, if not subjective, style has no precedent in baroque music and clearly heralds the end of the entire era" , while Luigi Torchi maintained that "he rescued the imperiled music of the eighteenth century". His contemporary, Charles Burney, held that "he had certainly a great share of whim and caprice, but he built his freaks on a good foundation, being an excellent contrapuntist". The asteroid 10875 Veracini was named after him
Nov 17 Thomas Pelham-Holles 1st Duke of Newcastle a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle