Died in 1768

Jan 13 Giuseppe Simone Assemani a Lebanese Maronite orientalist.
Jan 13 Pierre-Gabriel Buffardin a French flutist and composer of the late Baroque period. Born in Provence, Buffardin was a flute soloist at the court of the Elector of Saxony in Dresden from 1715 to 1749. He was the teacher of flautists Johann Joachim Quantz, Pietro Grassi Florio, and Johann Sebastian Bach's elder brother, Johann Jacob Bach, whom he met in Constantinople sometime before 1712
Jan 29 John Martyn (botanist) an English botanist. He is best known for his Historia Plantarum Rariorum , and his translation, with valuable agricultural and botanical notes, of the Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil
Feb 1 Sir Robert Rich 4th Baronet a British cavalry officer. As a junior officer he fought at the Battle of Schellenberg and at the Battle of Blenheim during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was then asked the raise a regiment to combat the threat from the Jacobite rising rising of 1715. He also served with the Pragmatic Army under the Earl of Stair at the Battle of Dettingen during the War of the Austrian Succession. As a Member of Parliament he represented three different constituencies but never attained political office
Feb 2 Charles Étienne Louis Camus a French mathematician and mechanician who was born at Crécy-en-Brie, near Meaux.
Feb 2 Robert Smith (mathematician) an English mathematician and music theorist.
Feb 8 George Dance the Elder an English architect of the 18th century. He was the City of London surveyor and architect from 1735 until his death
Feb 17 Arthur Onslow an English politician. He set a record for length of service when repeatedly elected to serve as Speaker of the House of Commons, where he was known for his integrity
Feb 29 John Mitchell (geographer) a colonial American physician and botanist. He created the most comprehensive and perhaps largest 18th-century map of eastern North America, known today as the Mitchell Map. First published in 1755, in conjunction with the imminent Seven Years' War, the Mitchell Map was subsequently used during the Treaty of Paris to define the boundaries of the newly independent United States and remains important today for resolving border disputes
Mar 1 Hermann Samuel Reimarus remembered for his Deism, the doctrine that human reason can arrive at a knowledge of God and ethics from a study of nature and our own internal reality, thus eliminating the need for religions based on revelation. He denied the supernatural origin of Christianity, and is credited by some with initiating historians' investigation of the historical Jesus
Mar 1 Teodor Kazimierz Czartoryski a bishop of Poznań and a member of the magnate family of Czartoryski in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. While he took good care of his ecclesiastical estates, he was much less involved in politics then his more famous brothers from the familia, August Aleksander Czartoryski and Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski
Mar 3 Nicola Porpora a Neapolitan composer of Baroque operas and teacher of singing, whose most famous singing student was the castrato Farinelli. Other students included composers Matteo Capranica and Joseph Haydn
Mar 11 Giovanni Battista Vaccarini an Italian architect, notable for his work in the Sicilian Baroque style in his homeland during the period of massive rebuilding following the earthquake of 1693. Many of his principal works can be found in the area in and around Catania
Mar 18 Laurence Sterne an Anglo-Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman. He is best known for his novels The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy; but he also published many sermons, wrote memoirs, and was involved in local politics. Sterne died in London after years of fighting consumption
Apr 5 Egidio Forcellini born at Fener in the district of Treviso and belonged to a very poor family.
Apr 9 Sarah Fielding a British author and sister of the novelist Henry Fielding. She was the author of The Governess, or The Little Female Academy , which was the first novel in English written especially for children , and had earlier achieved success with her novel The Adventures of David Simple
Apr 19 Canaletto an Italian painter of landscapes, or vedute, of Venice. He was also an important printmaker in etching
Apr 21 Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumin one of the most influential and successful European diplomats of the 18th century. He was chiefly responsible for Russian foreign policy during the reign of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna
Apr 29 Georg Brandt a Swedish chemist and mineralogist who discovered cobalt. He was the first person to discover a metal unknown in ancient times
May 6 Louis Alexandre Prince of Lamballe the son and heir of Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, grandson of Louis XIV by the king's legitimised son, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon. He was known as the Prince of Lamballe from birth. He pre-deceased his father, and died childless
May 13 Princess Louisa of Great Britain a grandchild of George II and sister of George III.
Jun 8 Johann Joachim Winckelmann a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology", Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history. His would be the decisive influence on the rise of the neoclassical movement during the late 18th century. His writings influenced not only a new science of archaeology and art history but Western painting, sculpture, literature and even philosophy. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art was one of the first books written in German to become a classic of European literature. His subsequent influence on Lessing, Herder, Goethe, Hölderlin, Heine, Nietzsche, George, and Spengler has been provocatively called "the Tyranny of Greece over Germany."
Jun 15 James Short (mathematician) a Scottish mathematician, optician and telescope maker.
Jun 19 Benjamin Tasker Sr. the 21st Proprietary Governor of Maryland from 1752 to 1753. He also occupied a number of other significant colonial offices, including, on various occasions, being elected Mayor of Annapolis
Jun 24 Marie Leszczyńska a queen consort of France. She was a daughter of King Stanisław I of Poland and Catherine Opalińska. She married King Louis XV of France and was the grandmother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, and Charles She was the longest-serving queen consort of France
Jun 24 Johann Julius Hecker a German educator who established the first Realschule and Prussia's first teacher-education institution.
Jul 6 Conrad Beissel the German-born religious leader who in 1732 founded the Ephrata Community in Pennsylvania, USA.
Jul 11 José de Nebra a Spanish composer.
Jul 24 Nathaniel Lardner an English theologian.
Aug 3 Thomas Secker born at Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire.
Aug 11 Peter Collinson (botanist) a Fellow of the Royal Society, an avid gardener, and the middleman for an international exchange of scientific ideas in mid-18th century London. He is best known for his horticultural friendship with John Bartram and his correspondence with Benjamin Franklin about electricity
Aug 17 Vasily Trediakovsky a Russian poet, essayist and playwright who helped lay the foundations of classical Russian literature.
Sep 2 Antoine Deparcieux a French mathematician.
Sep 11 Joseph-Nicolas Delisle a French astronomer and cartographer.
Oct 1 Robert Simson a Scottish mathematician and professor of mathematics at the University of Glasgow. The pedal line of a triangle is sometimes called the "Simson line" after him
Oct 8 Pierre-Joseph Thoulier d'Olivet a French abbot, writer, grammarian and translator. He was elected the fourth occupant of Académie française seat 31
Oct 17 Louis VIII Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1739 to 1768. He was the son of Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Margravine Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Oct 28 Michel Blavet a French composer and flute virtuoso. Although Blavet taught himself to play almost every instrument, he specialized in the bassoon and the flute which he held to the left, the opposite of how most flutists hold theirs today
Oct 31 Francesco Maria Veracini an Italian composer and violinist, perhaps best known for his sets of violin sonatas. As a composer, according to Manfred Bukofzer, "His individual, if not subjective, style has no precedent in baroque music and clearly heralds the end of the entire era" , while Luigi Torchi maintained that "he rescued the imperiled music of the eighteenth century". His contemporary, Charles Burney, held that "he had certainly a great share of whim and caprice, but he built his freaks on a good foundation, being an excellent contrapuntist". The asteroid 10875 Veracini was named after him
Nov 1 Pierre van Maldere a violinist and composer from the Southern Low Countries.
Nov 16 Hans von Lehwaldt a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who participated in the Silesian Wars of Frederick the Great.
Nov 17 Thomas Pelham-Holles 1st Duke of Newcastle a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle
Dec 8 Jean Denis Attiret a French Jesuit painter and missionary to China.
Dec 20 Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni an Italian poet and librettist. As a poet Frugoni was one of the best of the school of the Arcadian Academy, and his lyrics and pastorals had great facility and elegance. His collected works were published at Parma in 10 volumes in 1799, and a more complete edition appeared at Lucca in the same year in 15 volumes
Dec 30 Ruth Blay executed by hanging after being convicted of concealing the body of her illegitimate child in the floor of the barn next to the house in which she was staying. She was granted 3 reprieves before the execution. Blay was the last female executed by New Hampshire