Died in 1771

Jan 2 Louis Charles César Le Tellier a French military commander and Marshal of France.
Jan 5 John Russell 4th Duke of Bedford an 18th-century British statesman. He was the fourth son of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford, by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John Howland of Streatham, Surrey. Known as Lord John Russell, he married in October 1731 Diana Spencer, daughter of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland; became Duke of Bedford on his brother’s death a year later; and having lost his first wife in 1735, married in April 1737 Lady Gertrude Leveson-Gower , daughter of John Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Gower
Jan 11 Jean-Baptiste de Boyer Marquis d'Argens a French philosopher and writer.
Jan 31 Dmitry Laptev a Russian Arctic explorer and Vice Admiral. The Dmitry Laptev Strait is named in his honor and the Laptev Sea is named in honor of him and his cousin, and fellow Arctic explorer, Khariton Laptev
Feb 2 Gustaf Otto Douglas a Swedish mercenary, grandson of Robert Douglas, Count of Skenninge. He was captured by Russians during the Battle of Poltava. He was eventually employed by the Russian army during the Great Northern War, and in 1717 was placed in charge of the occupation of Finland. While resident in Turku, Douglas is reputed to have killed a Russian attendant during festivities of some kind. After being sentenced to imprisonment, Douglas bought his freedom with the lives of two hundred Finns, followed by the same number of horses, one from each of the families of these men. Douglas is believed to have made several inhumane pronouncements on the scorched earth policy he employed during the occupation of Finland. By making the land uninhabited and uninhabitable, he sought to leave nothing for his former employers the Swedes to retake. He is generally believed to have been a more cruel and sadistic figure even than his Russian superiors, and bears comparison with Kurtz of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, particularly when one considers the 10,000 slaves estimated to have been taken to Russia from Finland during the Greater Wrath
Feb 12 Adolf Frederick King of Sweden King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach
Feb 20 Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan a French geophysicist, astronomer and most notably, chronobiologist, was born in the town of Béziers on 26 November 1678. De Mairan lost his father, François d'Ortous, at age four and his mother twelve years later at age sixteen. Over the course of his life, de Mairan was elected into numerous scientific societies and made key discoveries in a variety of fields including ancient texts and astronomy. His observations and experiments also inspired the beginning of what is now known as the study of biological circadian rhythms. At the age of 92, de Mairan died of pneumonia in Paris on 20 February 1771
Mar 4 Frederick William Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt born 17 November 1700, Oranienbaum Castle near Dessau – and died 4 March 1771, Wildenbruch Castle. In his lifetime, from 1711 to 1771, he held the titles Prince in Prussia and Margrave of Brandenburg, with the style Royal Highness. He was made a knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. In the 19th century he was retrospectively known by the title Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt, in order to differentiate his branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty. He was the second owner of the Prussian secundogeniture of Brandenburg-Schwedt. His parents were Philip William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt, and Princess Johanna Charlotte of Anhalt-Dessau. He was the nephew of King Frederick I of Prussia
Mar 8 Louis August le Clerc a French-born sculptor working in Denmark. He was born in Metz, France to copperplate engraver Sebastian le Clerc and his wife Charlotte van den Kerckhove. He was summoned to Denmark at the age of 47, and lived out the rest of his life there as a royal sculptor to the Danish Court and as professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Art. He helped introduce French Rococo artistic ideals to Denmark
Mar 20 Louis-Michel van Loo a French painter.
Mar 22 Raimondo di Sangro an Italian nobleman, inventor, soldier, writer, scientist, alchemist and freemason best remembered for his reconstruction of the Chapel of Sansevero in Naples.
Mar 24 William Shirley a British colonial administrator who was the longest-serving governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and then Governor of the Bahamas in the 1760s. He is best known for his role in organizing the 1745 Siege of Louisbourg during King George's War, and for his role in military affairs during the French and Indian War. He spent most of his years in the colonial administration of North America working to defeat New France, but his lack of formal military training led to political difficulties and his eventual downfall
Apr 28 Valentin Rose the Elder a German pharmacist and chemist born in Neuruppin. He is remembered for creation of a fusible alloy known as Rose metal, which is composed of lead, bismuth and tin
Apr 29 Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli a French-born Russian-Italian architect. He developed an easily recognizable style of Late Baroque, both sumptuous and majestic. His major works, including the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg and the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo, are famed for extravagant luxury and opulence of decoration
May 21 Christopher Smart an English poet. He was a major contributor to two popular magazines and a friend to influential cultural icons like Samuel Johnson and Henry Fielding. Smart, a high church Anglican, was widely known throughout London
May 21 Maria Zofia Czartoryska a Polish szlachcianka.
May 29 Johann Adolph Hass a German clavichord and harpsichord maker, the son of Hieronymus Albrecht Hass, who was also a clavier maker. He should not be confused with the German composer Johann Adolph Hasse
Jun 8 George Montagu-Dunk 2nd Earl of Halifax a British statesman of the Georgian era. Due to his success in extending American commerce he became known as "father of the colonies". President of the Board of Trade 1748-61, he aided the foundation of Nova Scotia, 1749, the capital Halifax being named after him
Jun 16 Louis Count of Clermont a member of the cadet Bourbon-Condé branch of the French royal house. He is known for leading French forces in Germany during the Seven Years' War where he took command in 1758 following the failed French Invasion of Hanover. He was unable to break through Ferdinand of Brunswick's Anglo-German army and captured Hanover. He was Count of Clermont from birth
Jun 17 Daskalogiannis a wealthy shipbuilder and shipowner who led a Cretan revolt against Ottoman rule in the 18th century.
Jul 4 Michael Paknanas a Greek gardener and martyr. He was canonized as St Michael, the new martyr
Jul 12 Flavio Chigi (1711–1771) an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal. He was a member of the noble Chigi family, nephew of Fabio Chigi, Pope Alexander VII
Jul 21 Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi one of the leading German political economists in the 18th century.
Jul 30 Thomas Gray an English poet, letter-writer, classical scholar and professor at Cambridge University. He is widely known for his Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, published in 1751
Aug 21 Alexis Fontaine des Bertins a French mathematician. He was a patron and teacher of Jean-Jacques de Marguerie
Aug 23 Juan de Iriarte a Spanish writer, French and English translator in the Royal Chancery, Hellenist and latinist.
Aug 31 Ursin Durand a French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, and historian.
Sep 9 Robert Wood (antiquarian) a British traveller, classical scholar, civil servant and politician.
Sep 17 Tobias Smollett a Scottish poet and author. He was best known for his picaresque novels, such as The Adventures of Roderick Random and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle , which influenced later novelists such as Charles Dickens. George Orwell admired Smollett very much. His novels were amended liberally by printers; a definitive edition of each of his works was edited by O. Brack, to correct variants
Oct 9 Jan Klemens Branicki a Polish nobleman, magnate and Hetman, Field Crown Hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1735 and 1752, and Great Crown Hetman between 1752 and 1771. One of the wealthiest Polish magnates in the 17th century, owner of 12 towns, 257 villages and 17 palaces. He was the last male representative of the Branicki family
Oct 14 František Brixi a Czech classical composer of the 18th century. His first name is sometimes given, by reference works, in its Germanic form: Franz
Oct 28 Johann Gottlieb Graun a German Baroque/Classical era composer and violinist, born in Wahrenbrück.
Nov 6 John Bevis an English doctor and astronomer. He is best known for discovering the Crab Nebula in 1731
Nov 13 Konrad Ernst Ackermann a German actor.
Nov 18 Giuseppe de Majo an Italian composer and organist. He was the father of the composer Gian Francesco de Majo. His compositional output consists of 10 operas, an oratorio, a concerto for 2 violins, and a considerable amount of sacred music
Dec 6 Giovanni Battista Morgagni an Italian anatomist, celebrated as the father of modern anatomical pathology.
Dec 18 Philip Miller an English botanist of Scottish descent.
Dec 23 Marie-Marguerite d'Youville a French Canadian widow who founded the religious order the Order of Sisters of Charity of Montreal, commonly known as the Grey Nuns of Montreal. She was canonized by Pope John-Paul II of the Roman Catholic Church in 1990
Dec 26 Claude Adrien Helvétius a French philosopher and littérateur.
Dec 27 Henri Pitot a French hydraulic engineer and the inventor of the pitot tube.