Died in 1773

Jan 21 Alexis Piron a French epigrammatist and dramatist.
Jan 23 Manuel Pinto da Fonseca a Knight of the Langue of Portugal in the Order of Malta, of which he also was the 68th Prince and Grand Master from 1741 until his death. He was a Portuguese nobleman, the son of Miguel Álvaro Pinto da Fonseca, Alcaide-Mór de Ranhados, and his wife, Ana Pinto Teixeira
Jan 24 Philippe Buache a French geographer.
Mar 1 Jan Wagenaar a Dutch historian, known best for his contributions to "Tegenwoordige staat van nederland" and "Vaderlandsche Historie".
Mar 1 Luigi Vanvitelli an Italian engineer and architect. The most prominent 18th-century architect of Italy, he practised a sober classicizing academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism
Mar 3 Andrzej Poniatowski a Polish nobleman , General and Field Marshal.
Mar 13 Philibert Commerson a French naturalist, best known for accompanying Louis Antoine de Bougainville on his voyage of circumnavigation in 1766–1769.
Mar 20 Gottlieb Heinrich Totleben a Saxon-born Russian Empire general known for his adventurism and contradictory military career.
Mar 20 Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1730 until his death.
Mar 24 Philip Stanhope 4th Earl of Chesterfield a British statesman and man of letters.
Apr 13 Jakub Fontana a Polish architect of Italian origin, a representative of the Baroque and Neoclassicism styles, the court architect of Polish kings, and was knighted in 1764. He was the son of Józef II Fontana, and the brother of Jan Kanty Fontana
May 7 Christian Gottlieb Ludwig a German physician and botanist born in Brzeg, Silesia. He was the father of Christian Ludwig , a physician/scientist known for his translations of Joseph Priestley's scientific experiments
May 8 Ali Bey Al-Kabir a Mamluk leader of Egypt from 1768 to 1769, 1772, or 1773. Originally a Mamluk soldier, he rose to prominence in 1768 when he rebelled against his Ottoman rulers, making the Egypt Eyalet of the Osman Empire independent for a short time. His rule ended following the insubordination of his most trusted general, Abu al-Dhahab, which led to Ali Bey's exile then death outside the walls of Cairo
May 15 Alban Butler an English Roman Catholic priest and hagiographer.
May 24 Jan Zach a Czech composer, violinist and organist. Although he was a gifted and versatile composer capable of writing both in Baroque and Classical idioms, his eccentric personality led to numerous conflicts and lack of steady employment since about 1756
Jun 27 Mentewab Empress of Ethiopia, consort of Emperor Bakaffa, mother of Iyasu II and grandmother of Iyoas She was also known officially by her baptismal name of Welete Giyorgis. Mentewab was a major political figure during the reigns of her son the Emperor Iyasu and grandson Iyoas. Empress Mentewab was also known by the honorific of Berhan Mogasa or "Glorifier of Light". This was to compliment the honorific of her son Iyasu II, who was Berhan Seged or "He To Whom the Light Bows"
Jul 5 Francisco José Freire born at Lisbon.
Jul 12 Johann Joachim Quantz a German flutist, flute maker and composer. He composed hundreds of flute sonatas and concertos, and wrote On Playing the Flute, a treatise on flute performance
Jul 16 Nils Rosén von Rosenstein a Swedish physician. He is considered the founder of modern pediatrics, while his work The diseases of children, and their remedies is considered to be "the first modern textbook on the subject"
Jul 23 George Edwards (naturalist) an English naturalist and ornithologist, known as the "father of British ornithology".
Aug 3 Stanisław Konarski a Polish pedagogue, educational reformer, political writer, poet, dramatist, Piarist monk and precursor of the Enlightenment in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Aug 20 Enrique Flórez a Spanish historian.
Aug 24 George Lyttelton 1st Baron Lyttelton a British statesman and patron of the arts.
Aug 27 Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz a Prussian soldier and one of the greatest German cavalry generals.
Aug 30 Nicolau Nasoni an Italian artist and architect but mostly active in Portugal.
Aug 30 Narayanrao Peshwa the fifth Peshwa or ruler of the Maratha Empire from November 1772 until his murder in August 1773.He married Gangabai Sathe who later gave birth to Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa.
Sep 23 Johan Ernst Gunnerus a Norwegian bishop and botanist. Gunnerus was born at Christiania. He was bishop of the Diocese of Nidaros from 1758 until his death and also a professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen
Oct 25 Johann Georg Estor a German theorist of public law, historian and book collector. To his opinion the Roman Law is strange to the original German law-culture and must be considered as a foreign body
Oct 26 Amédée-François Frézier best remembered for bringing back five specimens of Fragaria chiloensis, the beach strawberry, from an assignment in South America, thus introducing this New World fruit to the Old.
Nov 2 John Glas a Scottish clergyman who started the Glasite church movement.
Nov 16 John Hawkesworth (book editor) born in London.
Nov 17 Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle a French Protestant writer.
Nov 19 James FitzGerald 1st Duke of Leinster Lieutenant-General James FitzGerald, 1st Duke of Leinster, etc. PC , styled Lord Offaly until 1744 and known as The Earl of Kildare between 1744 and 1761 and as The Marquess of Kildare between 1761 and 1766, was an Irish nobleman, soldier and politician
Nov 22 Ivan Neplyuyev a Russian diplomat and administrator prominent in the service of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. His memoirs were published posthumously and his statue may be seen in Orenburg, the city he founded
Dec 4 Anton Losenko a Ukrainian neoclassical painter and academician who lived in Imperial Russia and who specialized in historical subjects and portraits. He was one of the founders of the Imperial Russian historical movement in painting