Died in 1774

Jan 9 Jacques-François Blondel a French architect and teacher. After running his own highly successful school of architecture for many years, he was appointed Professor of Architecture at the Académie d'Architecture in 1762, and his Cours d'architecture largely superseded a similarly titled book published in 1675 by his famous namesake, François Blondel, who had occupied the same post in the late 17th century
Jan 9 Józef Andrzej Załuski a Polish Catholic priest, Bishop of Kiev, a sponsor of learning and culture, and a renowned bibliophile. A member of the Polish nobility , bearing the hereditary Junosza coat-of-arms, he is most famous as co-founder of the Załuski Library, one of the largest 18th-century book collections in the world
Jan 21 Florian Leopold Gassmann a German-speaking Bohemian opera composer of the transitional period between the baroque and classical eras. He was one of the principal composers of dramma giocoso immediately before Mozart
Jan 21 Mustafa III the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1757 to 1774. He was a son of Sultan Ahmed III and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid He was born in Edirne. His mother was Âminā Mihr-î-Shâh Sultan
Jan 29 Franciszek Ferdynant Lubomirski a Polish noble and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on 3 August 1762 in Warsaw.
Jan 30 František Tůma an important Czech composer of the Baroque era. Born in Kostelec nad Orlici, Bohemia, he lived the greater part of his life in Vienna, first as director of music for Count Franz Ferdinand Kinsky, later filling a similar office for the widow of Emperor Karl He was an important late-baroque composer, organist, gambist and theorbist
Feb 13 Charles Marie de La Condamine a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician. He spent ten years in present-day Ecuador measuring the length of a degree latitude at the equator and preparing the first map of the Amazon region based on astronomical observations. Furthermore he was a contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers
Feb 25 Johann Georg Chevalier de Saxe a Saxon Field Marshal and Governor of Dresden.
Mar 7 Carlo Alberto Guidoboni Cavalchini an Italian Cardinal. Considered papabile in the Papal conclave, 1758, he was vetoed by Louis XV of France under the jus exclusivae
Mar 30 Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken wife of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt and one of the most learned women of her time.
Apr 4 Oliver Goldsmith best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield , his pastoral poem The Deserted Village , and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man and She Stoops to Conquer. He also wrote An History of the Earth and Animated Nature. He is thought to have written the classic children's tale The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes, the source of the phrase "goody two-shoes"
Apr 20 Aleksandr Bibikov a Russian statesman and military officer.
Apr 23 Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich a German painter and art administrator. In his own works, he was adept at imitating many earlier artists, but never developed a style of his own
Apr 28 Gottfried Lengnich an 18th-century historian, lawyer and politician. He became known for writing the 9-volume History of Royal Prussia and for teaching Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland
May 4 Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick generalissimus of the Army of Russia, and the husband of Anna Leopoldovna, who reigned as regent of Russia for one year.
May 10 Louis XV of France a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached maturity in 1723, his kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans as Regent of France; the duke was his maternal great-uncle, as well as first cousin twice removed patrilineally. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom
May 26 Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg an Austrian general.
Jun 27 Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin a German physician, botanist and explorer.
Jul 1 Henry Fox 1st Baron Holland a leading British politician of the 18th century. He identified primarily with the Whig faction. He notably held the posts of Secretary for War, Southern Secretary and Paymaster of the forces, from which he enriched himself, but while widely tipped as a future Prime Minister, he never held that office. He was the father of Charles James Fox
Jul 9 Anna Morandi Manzolini an internationally known anatomist and anatomical wax modeler, as lecturer of anatomical design at the University of Bologna.
Jul 11 Sir William Johnson 1st Baronet an Anglo-Irish official of the British Empire. As a young man, Johnson moved to the Province of New York to manage an estate purchased by his uncle, Admiral Peter Warren, which was located amidst the Mohawk, one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League. Johnson learned the Mohawk language and Iroquois customs, and was appointed the British agent to the Iroquois. Because of his success, he was appointed in 1756 as British Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the northern colonies. Throughout his career as a British official among the Iroquois, Johnson combined personal business with official diplomacy, acquiring tens of thousands of acres of Native land and becoming very wealthy
Jul 14 James O'Hara 2nd Baron Tyrawley an Irish officer in the British Army. After serving as a junior officer in Spain and the Low Countries during the War of the Spanish Succession, he went on to become British ambassador to Lisbon establishing a close relationship with King John V there. He undertook a tour as British ambassador to Saint Petersburg before becoming Governor of Gibraltar where he set about improving the fortifications. He was briefly commander of British troops in Portugal during the Seven Years' War but was replaced within a few months. During his military career he was colonel of eight different regiments
Aug 11 Charles-François Tiphaigne de la Roche a French author.
Aug 14 Johann Jakob Reiske a German scholar and physician. He was a pioneer in the fields of Arabic and Byzantine philology as well as Islamic numismatics
Aug 25 Niccolò Jommelli a Neapolitan composer. He was born in Aversa and died in Naples. Along with other composers mainly in the Holy Roman Empire and France, he made important changes to opera and reduced the importance of star singers
Sep 22 Pope Clement XIV born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, reigned from 19 May 1769 to his death in 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals. He is the last pope to take the name "Clement" upon his election
Sep 22 Charles Louis Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck a Lieutenant General in the Prussian Army and Governor of Reval in the Governorate of Estonia.
Sep 25 John Bradstreet a British Army officer during King Georges War, the French and Indian War, and Pontiac's Rebellion. He was born in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia to a British Army Lieutenant and an Acadian mother. He also served as the Commodore-Governor for Newfoundland
Oct 15 Dmitry Ukhtomsky the chief architect of Moscow, Russia during the reign of Empress Elizabeth.
Oct 16 Robert Fergusson a Scottish poet. After formal education at the University of St Andrews, Fergusson followed an essentially bohemian life course in Edinburgh, the city of his birth, then at the height of intellectual and cultural ferment as part of the Scottish enlightenment. Many of his extant poems were printed from 1771 onwards in Walter Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine, and a collected works was first published early in 1773. Despite a short life, his career was highly influential, especially through its impact on Robert Burns. He wrote both Scottish English and the Scots language, and it is his vivid and masterly writing in the latter leid for which he is principally acclaimed
Oct 23 Michel Benoist most noted for the waterworks he constructed for the emperor.
Nov 22 Robert Clive a British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown. Together with Warren Hastings he was one of the key early figures in the creation of British India. He also sat as a Tory Member of Parliament in Great Britain
Dec 2 Johann Friedrich Agricola a German composer, organist, singer, pedagogue, and writer on music. He sometimes wrote under the pseudonym Flavio Anicio Olibrio
Dec 16 François Quesnay a French economist of the Physiocratic school. He is known for publishing the "Tableau économique" in 1758, which provided the foundations of the ideas of the Physiocrats. This was perhaps the first work to attempt to describe the workings of the economy in an analytical way, and as such can be viewed as one of the first important contributions to economic thought. His Le Despotisme de la Chine, written in 1767, describes Chinese politics and society, and his own political support for constitutional Oriental despotism
Dec 16 Susanne von Klettenberg a German abbess and writer. She was a friend of Katharina Elisabeth Goethe, the mother of writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Klettenberg corresponded with Goethe, and he shaped a character, "Beautiful Soul," after her in his novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship
Dec 29 Antoniotto Botta Adorno a high officer of the Habsburg Monarchy and a plenipotentiary of the Austrian Netherlands.