Died in 1775

Jan 1 Ahmad Shah Bahadur born to Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah. He succeeded his father to the throne as the 15th Mughal Emperor in the year 1748 at the age of 22. When Ahmed Shah Bahadur came to power the rule of the Mughal Empire was collapsing, furthermore his administrative weaknesses eventually led to the rise of the usurping Imad-ul-Mulk
Jan 8 John Baskerville best remembered as a printer and type designer.
Jan 11 Prithvi Narayan Shah the first king of the unified Nepal. He is credited for starting the campaign for a unified Nepal, which had been divided and weakened under Malla confederacy. He was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah , the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. Prithvi Narayan Shah succeeded his father, King Nara Bhupal Shah to the throne of the Gorkha Kingdom in 1743
Jan 13 Johann Georg Walch a German Lutheran theologian.
Jan 15 Giovanni Battista Sammartini an Italian composer, oboist, organist, choirmaster and teacher. He counted Gluck among his students, and was highly regarded by younger composers including Johann Christian Bach. It has also been noted that many stylizations in Joseph Haydn's compositions are similar to those of Sammartini, although Haydn denied any such influence. Sammartini is especially associated with the formation of the concert symphony through both the shift from a brief opera-overture style and the introduction of a new seriousness and use of thematic development that prefigure Haydn and Mozart. Some of his works are described as galant, a style associated with Enlightenment ideals, while "the prevailing impression left by Sammartini's work... he contributed greatly to the development of a Classical style that achieved its moment of greatest clarity precisely when his long, active life was approaching its end"
Jan 17 Vincenzo Riccati an Italian mathematician and physicist. He was the brother of Giordano Riccati, and the second son of Jacopo Riccati
Jan 21 Yemelyan Pugachev a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine Alexander Pushkin wrote a notable history of the rebellion, The History of Pugachev, and he recounted some of the events in his novel The Captain's Daughter.
Jan 26 Shuja-ud-Daula the Subedar Nawab of Oudh from 5 October 1754 to 26 January 1775.
Feb 5 Eusebius Amort a German Roman Catholic theologian.
Feb 6 William Dowdeswell (Chancellor) a British politician. He went abroad to recover his health in 1774 but died the next February in Nice
Feb 15 Peter Dens a Flemish Roman Catholic theologian.
Feb 16 Jean-Baptiste Vivien de Châteaubrun a French dramatist and a member of the Académie française. He spent 40 years of his life polishing two plays, but his maid mistook them for wrapping paper, thus losing his life's work. Today, his work Les Troyennes survives
Mar 2 Nikolaos Doxaras a Greek painter of the Heptanese School, born in the Ionian islands.
Mar 5 Pierre-Laurent Buirette de Belloy a French dramatist and actor.
Mar 22 Peter August Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck a Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. He was the fifth and youngest son of Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and his wife Duchess Luise Charlotte of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
May 2 Fredericka of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a German noblewoman member of the House of Wettin and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels.
May 10 Marie Magdalene Charlotte Ackermann a German actress. She was the daughter of the actors Konrad Ernst Ackermann and Sophie Charlotte Ackermann
May 10 Caroline Matilda of Great Britain Queen of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1775 as the wife of King Christian VII.
May 18 Johann Joachim Kändler the most important modelleur of the Meissen porcelain manufacture.
Jun 11 Egidio Duni an Italian composer who studied in Naples and worked in Italy, France and London, writing both Italian and French operas.
Jun 17 John Pitcairn a British Marine officer who was stationed in Boston, Massachusetts at the start of the American Revolutionary War.
Jun 17 Joseph Warren an American doctor who played a leading role in American Patriot organizations in Boston in early days of the American Revolution, eventually serving as president of the revolutionary Massachusetts Provincial Congress. Warren enlisted Paul Revere and William Dawes on April 18, 1775, to leave Boston and spread the alarm that the British garrison in Boston was setting out to raid the town of Concord and arrest rebel leaders John Hancock and Samuel Adams. Warren participated in the next day's Battles of Lexington and Concord, which are commonly considered to be the opening engagements of the American Revolutionary War
Jun 23 Karl Ludwig von Pöllnitz a German adventurer and writer from Issum.
Jul 11 Simon Boerum a farmer, miller, and political leader from Brooklyn, New York. He represented New York in the Continental Congress in 1774 and 1775
Jul 13 Louis Charles Count of Eu a grandson of Louis XIV of France and his Maîtresse-en-titre Françoise-Athénaïs de Montespan. He was a member of the legitimised house of Bourbon du Maine. He was the last surviving member of the house
Jul 21 Szymon Czechowicz a prominent Polish painter of the Baroque, considered one of the most accomplished painters of 18th century sacral painting in Poland. He specialized in sublime effigies of painted figures. His establishment of a school of painting gives him a great influence on Polish art
Aug 13 Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski a Polish nobleman, Duke of Klewań and Żuków, magnate, Knight of the Order of the White Eagle since 1726. Co-founder and leader of the "Familia"
Aug 21 Daher el-Omar the autonomous Arab ruler of Northern Palestine during the mid-18th century. The founder of modern Haifa, he fortified many cities, among them Acre
Sep 12 Charles-Louis Mion a French composer of the Baroque era. He was the grand-nephew of Michel Richard Delalande who also taught him music. Between 1710 and 1718 he was a choirboy at the Sainte-Chapelle du Palais. Later in life he became music teacher to his patroness Madame de Pompadour. In 1755 he was appointed master of music to Les Enfants de France. He wrote motets and operas, one of which earned him a royal pension of 2,000 livres
Sep 14 Janusz Aleksander Sanguszko a magnate in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He held the titles of miecznik and Court Marshal of Lithuania. He was not interested in politics, and spent most of his life using the fortunes previous members of the Sanguszko family gathered, spending it on his lavish lifestyle. Indebted, in 1753 he agreed to divide the ordynacja ostrogoska he inherited from his mother, Marianna Lubomirska, among the members and allies of the familia. This decision, known as the transakcja kolbuszowska, was opposed by the enemy of familia, hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, and was finally accepted by the decision of Sejm in 1766
Sep 16 Allen Bathurst 1st Earl Bathurst a British politician.
Oct 2 Fukuda Chiyo-ni a Japanese poet of the Edo period, widely regarded as one of the greatest female haiku poets.
Oct 10 Louis Nicolas Victor de Félix d'Ollières a French soldier and statesman from a family originating in Provence. He was made a member of the Ordre du Saint-Esprit in 1764
Oct 18 Paul of the Cross an Italian mystic, and founder of the Passionists.
Oct 18 Christian August Crusius a German philosopher and Protestant theologian.
Oct 21 François-Hubert Drouais a French painter and the father of Jean-Germain Drouais.
Oct 22 Peyton Randolph a planter and public official from the Colony of Virginia. He served as speaker of the Virginia House of Burgesses, chairman of the Virginia Conventions, and the first President of the Continental Congress
Nov 1 Pierre-Joseph Bernard a French military man and salon poet with the reputation of a rake, the author of several libretti for Rameau. Mme de Pompadour arranged to have him appointed a royal librarian, at the château de Choisy, where she had a little pavilion built for him
Nov 5 Christian IV Count Palatine of Zweibrücken Duke of Zweibrücken from 1735 to 1775. He was the son of Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken and Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
Nov 7 François Rebel a French composer of the Baroque era. Born in Paris, the son of the leading composer Jean-Féry Rebel, he was a child prodigy who became a violinist in the orchestra of the Paris Opera at the age of 13. As a composer he is best known for his close collaboration with François Francoeur
Nov 21 John Hill (botanist) an English author and botanist. He contributed to contemporary periodicals and was awarded the title of Sir in recognition of his illustrated botanical compendium The Vegetable System
Nov 24 Lorenzo Ricci an Italian Jesuit, elected the 18th Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He was also the last before the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773
Dec 7 Charles Saunders (Royal Navy officer) a Royal Navy officer in the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War and later served as First Lord of the Admiralty. He was appointed to the Privy Council in 1766
Dec 9 Pietro Gnocchi an Italian composer, choir director, historian, and geographer of the late Baroque era, active mainly in Brescia, where he was choir director of Brescia Cathedral. In addition to composing an abundance of eccentrically-titled sacred music, all of which remains in manuscript, he wrote a 25-volume history of ancient Greek colonies
Dec 15 Princess Tarakanoff a pretender to the Russian throne. She styled herself, among other names, Knyaginya Vladimirskaya , princess Elisabeth Alexeievna, Fräulein Frank, and Madame Trémouille. Tarakanova is a name only later entertainment gave to her, apparently on the basis of how she lived her last months and died. In her own time, she was not known by that name
Dec 31 Anna Vorontsova a Russian lady in waiting, salonist and noble, cousin of the Empress Elizabeth of Russia. She was married to Chancellor Count Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov
Dec 31 Richard Montgomery an Irish-born soldier who first served in the British Army. He later became a Major General in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is most famous for leading the failed 1775 invasion of Canada