Born in 1776

Jan 4 Bernardino Drovetti an Italian diplomat, lawyer, explorer and antiquarian, appointed by Napoleon as French consul to Egypt at a time when the country and its antiquities were being opened rapidly to European knowledge and acquisition. His methods were deplorable. If twenty alabaster vases were found in a tomb, he would see to it that half were smashed to bring up their price. He would break off the pyramidion off of an obelisk to make it easier to transport, etc. But statues of him were raised in his native Italy for services rendered in gathering together the magnificent works of Egyptian art and astonishingly beautiful papyri for Europe
Jan 6 Ferdinand von Schill a Prussian officer who revolted unsuccessfully against French domination in May 1809.
Jan 8 Thomas Langlois Lefroy an Irish-Huguenot politician and judge. He served as an MP for the constituency of Dublin University in 1830–1841, Privy Councillor of Ireland in 1835–1869 and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1852–1866
Jan 9 Ludwig Rhesa a consistorial councillor of the Evangelical Church in Prussia and a professor at the University of Königsberg in East Prussia.
Jan 10 George Birkbeck a British doctor, academic, philanthropist, pioneer in adult education and founder of Birkbeck College.
Jan 15 Prince William Frederick Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh a great-grandson of King George II and nephew and son-in-law of King George III of the United Kingdom.
Jan 24 E. T. A. Hoffmann Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann , better known as T. Hoffmann, was a German Romantic author of fantasy and horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann, in which Hoffman appears as the hero. He is also the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which the famous ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two other stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumann's Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmann's character Johannes Kreisler
Feb 4 Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus a German naturalist and botanist.
Feb 11 Ioannis Kapodistrias a Greek Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and one of the most distinguished politicians and diplomats of Europe. After a long career in European politics and diplomacy he was elected as the first head of state of independent Greece and he is considered as the founder of the modern Greek State, and the founder of Greek independence
Feb 14 Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck a prolific German botanist, physician, zoologist, and natural philosopher. He was a contemporary of Goethe and was born within the lifetime of Linnaeus. He described approximately 7,000 plant species. His last official act as president of the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina was to admit Charles Darwin as a member. He was the author of numerous monographs on botany and zoology. His best-known works deal with fungi
Feb 15 Jean-Pierre Boyer one of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution, and President of Haiti from 1818 to 1843. He reunited the north and south of Haiti in 1820 and also occupied and took control of Santo Domingo, which brought all of Hispaniola under one government by 1822. Boyer managed to rule for the longest period of time of any of the revolutionary leaders of his generation
Feb 21 Joseph Barss a sea captain of the schooner Liverpool Packet and was one of the most successful privateers on the North American Atlantic coast during the War of 1812.
Feb 24 Alexander Stupin a Russian painter and art teacher. He founded and led the Arzamas School of Painting, Russia's first provincially-based art school
Mar 4 Guillaume Emmanuel Guignard vicomte de Saint-Priest a French émigré general who fought in the Russian army during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Mar 6 Luigi Lambruschini an Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in the mid nineteenth century.
Mar 10 Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Queen consort of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III. The couple's happy, though short-lived, marriage produced nine children, including the future monarchs Frederick William IV of Prussia and German Emperor Wilhelm I
Mar 12 Lady Hester Stanhope a British socialite, adventurer and traveler. Her archaeological expedition to Ashkelon in 1815 is considered the first modern excavation in the history of Holy Land archeology. Her use of a medieval Italian document is described as "one of the earliest uses of textual sources by field archaeologists"
Mar 27 Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel a French botanist and politician. He was a founder of the science of plant cytology
Mar 30 Vasily Tropinin a Russian Romantic painter. Much of his life was spent as a serf; he didn't attain his freedom until he was more than forty years old. Three of his more important works are a portrait of Alexander Pushkin and paintings called The Lace Maker and The Gold-Embroideress
Apr 1 Sophie Germain a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss. One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject. Her work on Fermat's Last Theorem provided a foundation for mathematicians exploring the subject for hundreds of years after. Because of prejudice against her gender, she was unable to make a career out of mathematics, but she worked independently throughout her life. In recognition of her contribution towards advancement of mathematics, an honorary degree was also conferred upon her by the University of Göttingen six years after her death. At the centenary of her life, a street and a girls' school were named after her. The Academy of Sciences established The Sophie Germain Prize in her honor
Apr 3 Mary Anne Clarke the mistress of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Their relationship began in 1803, while he was Commander-in-Chief of the army. Later in 1809, she wrote her memoirs which were published. She was the subject of a portrait by Adam Buck, and a caricature by Isaac Cruikshank; ten days after the latter's publication, the Duke resigned from his post as Commander of the British Army. In 1811, she commissioned Irish-born sculptor Lawrence Gahagan to sculpt a marble bust of her; this is now housed in the National Portrait Gallery, London
Apr 17 Jean-François Roger a French politician, journalist, poet and dramatic author. During the Revolution, at 16 years of age, he and his family were imprisoned for seventeen months for singing royalist songs. He was a civil servant, and he entered l' University where he published works of school literature. He was later appointed Professor during the Empire and Restoration. He was elected member of the French Academy, as a replacement for Suard, on 8 August 1817 and received by the duke of Lévis on 30 November next. His election was widely criticized. He was a member of the Commission of the Dictionary where he fought the Lacretelle proposal, accepted Villemain and the count of Holy-Aulaire and voted against Victor Hugo. He was one of the companions of the “Lunch of the Fork”. Of his comic and lyric works, sometimes written in collaboration with Etienne de Jouy, his greatest success is a comedy in verse, in three acts: L'Avocat, played for the first time at the Comédie-Française
Apr 25 Princess Mary Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh the 11th child and fourth daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom.
May 4 Johann Friedrich Herbart a German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline.
May 6 Pyotr Mikhailovich Volkonsky Knyaz/ Prince Pyotr Mikhailovich Volkonsky Russian: Волконский Пётр Михайлович , Russian military commander, General-Field Marshal , Adjutant General to Alexander I, member of the State Council , His Serene Highness Knyaz/Prince.
May 7 Amos Eaton considered the founder of the modern scientific prospectus in education, which was a radical departure from the American liberal arts tradition of classics, religious classes, lecture, and recitation. Eaton co-founded the Rensselaer School in 1824 with Stephen van Rensselaer III "in the application of science to the common purposes of life". His books in the eighteenth century were among the first published for which a systematic treatment of the United States was attempted, and in a language that all could read. His teaching laboratory for botany in the 1820s was the first of its kind in the country. Eaton's popular lectures and writings inspired numerous thinkers, in particular women, whom he encouraged to attend his public talks on experimental philosophy. Emma Willard would found the Troy Female Seminary , and Mary Mason Lyon, the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Eaton held the rank of senior professor at Rensselaer until his death in 1842
May 7 Dániel Berzsenyi a Hungarian poet.
May 8 Prince Bagrat of Georgia a Georgian royal prince of the House of Bagrationi and an author. A son of King George XII of Georgia, Bagrat occupied important administrative posts in the last years of the Georgian monarchy, after whose abolition by the Russian Empire in 1801 he entered the imperial civil service. He was known in Russia as the tsarevich Bagrat Georgievich Gruzinsky. He is the author of works in the history of Georgia, veterinary medicine and economics. Bagrat is the forefather of the surviving descendants of the last kings of Georgia
May 9 Archduke Joseph Palatine of Hungary the Palatine of Hungary from 1796 to 1847. He was the seventh son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Louisa of Spain
May 10 George Thomas Smart an English musician.
May 20 Simon Fraser (explorer) now the Canadian province of British Columbia. Fraser was employed by the Montreal-based North West Company. By 1805, he had been put in charge of all the company's operations west of the Rocky Mountains. He was responsible for building that area's first trading posts, and, in 1808, he explored what is now known as the Fraser River, which bears his name. Simon Fraser's exploratory efforts were partly responsible for Canada's boundary later being established at the 49th parallel , since he as a British subject was the first European to establish permanent settlements in the area. According to historian Alexander Begg, Fraser "was offered a knighthood but declined the title due to his limited wealth"
May 29 Peter Erasmus Müller a Danish bishop, historian, linguist and professor of theology.
Jun 1 Giuseppe Zamboni an Italian Roman Catholic priest and physicist who invented the Zamboni pile, an early electric battery similar to the Voltaic pile.
Jun 11 John Constable None
Jun 12 Pierre Révoil a French painter in the Troubadour style.
Jun 12 Karl Friedrich Burdach a German physiologist. He was born in Leipzig and died in Königsberg
Jul 13 Caroline of Baden an Electress of Bavaria and later the first Queen consort of Bavaria as the spouse of King Maximilian I Joseph.
Jul 14 Pierre Yrieix Daumesnil a French soldier in the armies of Napoleon during the first Empire and Restoration, eventually rising to the rank of brigadier general. He participated in the Battle of Wagram, in the course of which he lost a leg, which was replaced by a wooden prosthesis; hence his nickname jambe de bois , and was assigned to the defense of the Château de Vincennes in 1812. Vincennes was then an arsenal containing 52 000 new rifles, more than 100 field guns and many tons of powder, bullets, canonballs... A tempting prize for the Sixth Coalition marching on Paris in 1814 in the aftermath of the Battle of the Nations. However Daumesnil faced down the allies and replied with the famous words "I shall surrender Vincennes when I get my leg back". With only 300 men under his command, he resisted to the Coalition until king Louis XVIII of France ordered to leave the fortress
Jul 16 Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus a German physician and naturalist who spent most of his active career teaching at Vilnius University in Tsarist Russia.
Jul 20 Ignaz Schuppanzigh a violinist, friend and teacher of Beethoven, and leader of Count Razumovsky's private string quartet. Schuppanzigh and his quartet premiered many of Beethoven's string quartets, and in particular, the late string quartets. The Razumovsky quartet, which Schuppanzigh founded in late 1808, is considered to be the first professional string quartet. Until the founding of this quartet, quartet music was played primarily by amateurs or by professional musicians who joined together on an ad hoc basis
Aug 1 Jean Corbineau a French cavalry general of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. His two brothers Claude and Hercule also fought in both these wars and together the three men were known as "les trois Horaces"
Aug 1 Archibald Acheson 2nd Earl of Gosford a British politician who served as Lieutenant-Governor of Lower Canada and Governor General of British North America in the 19th century.
Aug 2 Friedrich Stromeyer a German chemist. Stromeyer received an MD degree from the University of Göttingen in 1800, studying under Johann Friedrich Gmelin and Louis Nicolas Vauquelin. He was then a professor at the university, and also served as an inspector of apothecaries
Aug 4 Pierre-Simon Ballanche a French writer and counterrevolutionary philosopher, who elaborated a theology of progress that possessed considerable influence in French literary circles in the beginning of the nineteenth century. He was the ninth member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1842
Aug 9 Amedeo Avogadro an Italian scientist. He is most noted for his contributions to molecular theory, including what is known as Avogadro's law. In tribute to him, the number of elementary entities in 1 mole of a substance, 6.02214179×1023, is known as the Avogadro constant, one of the seven SI base units and represented by NA
Aug 14 Christian Friedrich Tieck a German sculptor and a brother of Ludwig and Sophie Tieck.
Aug 15 Gottlieb Schick a German Neoclassical painter. His history paintings, portraits, and landscapes are characterized by romantic tendencies. Of these, he is best known for his portraits
Aug 15 Ignaz von Seyfried an Austrian musician, conductor and composer. He was born and died in Vienna. According to a statement in his handwritten memoirs he was a pupil of both Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Johann Albrechtsberger. He published Albrechtsberger's complete written works after his death. His own pupils included Franz von Suppé, Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst, Antonio Casimir Cartellieri, Joseph Fischhof and Eduard Marxsen
Aug 16 Amalia von Helvig a German and Swedish artist, writer, translator, socialite, Salonist and culture personality. She is known as an inspiration for many artists. She was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts
Aug 18 Agustín Argüelles a Spanish liberal politician.