Died in 1776

Jan 5 Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller a German zoologist.
Jan 14 Edward Cornwallis a British military officer who was the first Governor of Nova Scotia at Halifax, Nova Scotia. He later served as the Governor of Gibraltar
Mar 10 Élie Catherine Fréron a French critic and controversialist whose career focused on countering the influence of the philosophes of the French Enlightenment, partly thorough his vehicle, the Année littéraire. Thus Fréron, in recruiting young writers to counter the literary Establishment became central to the movement now called the Counter-Enlightenment
Mar 10 Niclas Sahlgren a Swedish merchant and philanthropist.
Mar 23 Robert James (physician) best known as the author of A Medicinal Dictionary, as the inventor of a popular "fever powder", and as a friend of Samuel Johnson.
Mar 24 John Harrison a self-educated English carpenter and clockmaker. He invented the marine chronometer, a long-sought after device for solving the problem of establishing the East-West position or longitude of a ship at sea, thus revolutionising and extending the possibility of safe long-distance sea travel in the Age of Sail. The problem was considered so intractable, and following the Scilly naval disaster of 1707 so important, that the British Parliament offered the Longitude prize of £20,000. Harrison came 39th in the BBC's 2002 public poll of the 100 Greatest Britons
Mar 26 Samuel Ward (American statesman) a farmer, politician, Supreme Court Justice, Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and a delegate to the Continental Congress. The son of an earlier Rhode Island Governor, Richard Ward, he was well educated as he grew up in a large Newport, Rhode Island family. After marrying, he and his new wife received property in Westerly, Rhode Island from his father-in-law, and upon settling there he took up farming. Entering politics as a fairly young man, he soon took sides in the hard money/paper money controversy, favoring hard money, or specie. His primary rival over the money issue was Providence politician Stephen Hopkins, and the two men became bitter rivals, alternating as governors of the colony for several terms
Apr 15 Natalia Alexeievna of Russia the first wife of the future Tsar Paul I of Russia, the only son of the Empress Catherine She was born as Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt in Prenzlau, Uckermark, Brandenburg, Prussia as the fifth child of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and his spouse Caroline of Zweibrücken, Countess Palatine.
Apr 19 Jacob Emden a leading German rabbi and talmudist who championed Orthodox Judaism in the face of the growing influence of the Sabbatean movement. He was acclaimed in all circles for his extensive knowledge, thus Moses Mendelssohn, founder of the Jewish Enlightenment movement, wrote to him as "your disciple, who thirsts for your words." Although Emden did not approve of the Hasidic movement which evolved during his lifetime, his books are highly regarded amongst the Hasidim. Thirty-one works were published during his lifetime, ten posthumously while others remain in manuscript
Apr 22 Johann Adolf Scheibe a German-Danish composer and significant critic and theorist of music.
Apr 22 Yeongjo of Joseon the 21st king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. He was the second son of Sukjong by Royal Noble Consort Suk of the Haeju Choi clan, and succeeded his older brother Gyeongjong as Prince after considerable controversy
Apr 29 Edward Wortley Montagu an English author and traveller.
May 4 Jacques Saly born in Valenciennes to François Marie Saly and his wife Marie Michelle.
May 7 Duchess Maria Anna Josepha of Bavaria a Duchess of Bavaria by birth and Margravine of Baden-Baden by marriage. She was nicknamed the savior of Bavaria. She is also known as Maria Josepha and is sometimes styled as a princess of Bavaria
May 23 Jeanne Julie Éléonore de Lespinasse owned a prominent salon in France.
Jun 10 Leopold Widhalm an Austrian luthier.
Jun 10 Hsinbyushin king of the Konbaung dynasty of Burma from 1763 to 1776. The second son of the dynasty founder Alaungpaya is best known for his wars with China and Siam, and is considered the most militaristic king of the dynasty. His successful defense against four Chinese invasions preserved Burmese independence. His invasion of Siam ended Siam's Ayutthaya Dynasty. The near simultaneous victories over China and Siam has been referred to as testimony "to a truly astonishing elan unmatched since Bayinnaung." He also raised the Shwedagon Pagoda to its current height in April 1775
Jun 20 Benjamin Huntsman an English inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.
Jul 7 Jeremiah Markland an English classical scholar.
Jul 10 Richard Peters (cleric) born in Liverpool, became an attorney, Anglican minister, and civil servant. In 1735 he emigrated to Pennsylvania, where he served in numerous posts for the Penn family, including on the Governor's Council from 1749 to 1775, and eventually became rector of Christ Church in Philadelphia
Aug 2 Louis François Prince of Conti a French nobleman, who was the Prince of Conti from 1727 to his death, following his father Louis Armand His mother was Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon, a natural granddaughter of Louis XIV. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince du Sang
Aug 25 Germain-François Poullain de Saint-Foix a French writer and playwright.
Aug 25 David Hume a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and scepticism. He was one of the most important figures in the Scottish Enlightenment, and in the history of Western philosophy. He is the philosopher who is "widely regarded as the greatest who has ever written in the English language." Hume is often grouped with John Locke, George Berkeley, and a handful of others as a British Empiricist
Sep 15 Christian Horrebow a Danish astronomer of the 18th century. He was a son of Peder Horrebow, whom he succeeded as director of the observatory associated with the University of Copenhagen
Sep 22 Nathan Hale a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British and executed. He is probably best remembered for his purported last words before being hanged: "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country." Hale has long been considered an American hero and, in 1985, he was officially designated the state hero of Connecticut
Sep 28 Pieter Cramer a wealthy Dutch merchant in linen and Spanish wool, remembered as an entomologist. Cramer was the director of the Zealand Society, a scientific society located in Flushing, and a member of Concordia et Libertate, based in Amsterdam. This literary and patriotic society, where Cramer gave lectures on minerals, commissioned and/or financed the publishing of his book De uitlandsche Kapellen, on foreign butterflies, occurring in three parts of the world Asia, Africa and America
Oct 15 John Ellis (naturalist) a British linen merchant and naturalist.
Oct 17 Pierre François le Courayer a French Catholic theological writer, for many years an expatriate in England.
Nov 1 Francisco de Saldanha da Gama the third cardinal patriarch of Lisbon.
Nov 15 Fernando de Silva 12th Duke of Alba a Spanish politician and general.
Nov 17 James Ferguson (Scottish astronomer) a Scottish astronomer, instrument and globe maker.
Dec 14 Johann Jakob Breitinger a Swiss philologist and author.