Born in 1778

Jan 1 Charles Alexandre Lesueur a French naturalist, artist and explorer.
Jan 3 Antoni Melchior Fijałkowski the Archbishop Metropolitan of Warsaw and spiritual leader of the nation during the Partitions of Poland.
Jan 4 Jean-Antoine Alavoine a French architect best known for his column in the Place de la Bastille, Paris , the July Column to memorialize those fallen in the Revolution of 1830. The column, consciously larger-scaled than the column in the Place Vendôme, has a capital freely based on the Corinthian order, with exaggerated corner volutes flanking putti holding swags, a complicated and somewhat incoherent design that found no imitators
Jan 4 Franciszek Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki an important Polish politician of the first half of the 19th century, prince and minister of the treasury in the Congress Kingdom of Poland. He is known as one of the most prominent economists and financiers of his era
Jan 5 Charles-Guillaume Étienne a French dramatist and miscellaneous writer.
Jan 9 Thomas Brown (philosopher) a Scottish philosopher and poet.
Jan 12 William Herbert (botanist) The Hon. William Herbert was a British botanist, botanical illustrator, poet, and clergyman. He served as a member of parliament for Hampshire from 1806 to 1807, and for Cricklade from 1811 to 1812
Jan 23 Alire Raffeneau Delile a French botanist.
Jan 24 Charles Ferdinand Duke of Berry the third child and youngest son of the future king, Charles X of France, and his wife, Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy. He was assassinated at the Paris Opera in 1820 by Louis Pierre Louvel, an anti-royal bonapartist. In June 1832, two years after the overthrow of his father, Charles X, his widow, Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchess de Berry, led a royalist insurrection in the Vendée in a failed attempt to restore their son to the French throne
Jan 31 Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky a Bohemian nobleman and an Austrian statesman.
Feb 4 Augustin Pyramus de Candolle a Swiss botanist. René Louiche Desfontaines launched Candolle's botanical career by recommending him at an herbarium. Within a couple of years Candolle had established a new genus, and he went on to document hundreds of plant families and create a new natural plant classification system. Although Candolle's main focus was botany, he also contributed to related fields such as phytogeography, agronomy, paleontology, medical botany, and economic botany
Feb 5 Jan Nepomucen Umiński a Polish military officer and a brigadier general of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw. A veteran of the Kościuszko Uprising, Napoleonic Wars and the November Uprising, he died in exile in Wiesbaden
Feb 6 Ugo Foscolo an Italian writer, revolutionary and poet.
Feb 14 Fernando Sor a Spanish classical guitarist and composer. While he is best known for his guitar compositions, he also composed music for a wide range of genres, including opera, orchestra, string quartet, piano, voice, and ballet. His ballet score Cendrillon received over one hundred performances. Sor’s works for guitar range from pieces for beginning players to advanced players such as Variations on a Theme of Mozart. Sor’s contemporaries considered him to be the best guitarist in the world, and his works for guitar have been widely played and reprinted since his death. Although modern classical guitar players usually do, Sor rarely used his annular finger or nails when playing
Feb 16 John Colborne 1st Baron Seaton a British Army officer and Colonial Governor. After taking part as a junior officer in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, Sir Ralph Abercromby's expedition to Egypt and then the War of the Third Coalition, he served as military secretary to Sir John Moore at the Battle of Corunna. He then commanded the 2nd Battalion of the 66th Regiment of Foot and, later, the 52nd Regiment of Foot at many of the battles of the Peninsular War. At the Battle of Waterloo, Colborne on his own initiative brought the 52nd Regiment of Foot forward, took up a flanking position in relation to the French Imperial Guard and then, after firing repeated volleys into their flank, charged at the Guard so driving them back in disorder. He went on to become commander-in-chief of all the armed forces in British North America, personally leading the offensive at the Battle of Saint-Eustache in Lower Canada and defeating the rebel force in December 1837. After that he was high commissioner of the Ionian Islands and then Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Feb 19 Friedrich Karl von Tettenborn a famous cavalry general in the Austrian and Russian armies during the Napoleonic Wars.
Feb 22 Rembrandt Peale an American artist and museum keeper. A prolific portrait painter, he was especially acclaimed for his likenesses of presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Peale's style was influenced by French Neoclassicism after a stay in Paris in his early thirties
Feb 25 José de San Martín an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire. Born in Yapeyú, Corrientes, in modern Argentina, he left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain
Mar 1 Chrétien Géofroy Nestler an Alsatian botanist and pharmacist.
Mar 3 Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz the consort of Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, the fifth son and eighth child of George III and Queen Charlotte.
Mar 4 Florestano Pepe an Italian patriot. He was brother to the more famous general Guglielmo Pepe and cousin to Gabriele Pepe
Mar 4 Robert Emmet an Irish nationalist and Republican, orator and rebel leader. He led an abortive rebellion against British rule in 1803 and was captured, tried and executed for high treason
Mar 6 Carl Bernhard von Trinius a German-born botanist and physician.
Mar 8 Jean-Toussaint Arrighi de Casanova a French diplomat and soldier of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. In the late 1840s, Arrighi was also involved in politics and was elected Deputy and then Senator in the French Parliament. He was a cousin-in-law of Napoleon I of France
Mar 19 Edward Pakenham an Anglo-Irish Army Officer and Politician. He was the brother-in law of the Duke of Wellington, with whom he served in the Peninsular War. Appointed as commander of British forces in North America in 1814, he was killed in action at the Battle of New Orleans
Mar 22 Aleksey Merzlyakov a Russian poet, critic, translator, and professor.
Mar 25 Sophie Blanchard a French aeronaut and the wife of ballooning pioneer Jean-Pierre Blanchard. Blanchard was the first woman to work as a professional balloonist, and after her husband's death she continued ballooning, making more than 60 ascents. Known throughout Europe for her ballooning exploits, Blanchard entertained Napoleon Bonaparte, who promoted her to the role of "Aeronaut of the Official Festivals", replacing André-Jacques Garnerin. On the restoration of the monarchy in 1814 she performed for Louis XVIII, who named her "Official Aeronaut of the Restoration"
Mar 31 Coenraad Jacob Temminck a Dutch aristocrat, zoologist, and museum director.
Apr 3 Pierre Bretonneau a French medical doctor.
Apr 9 Louis de Beaupoil de Saint-Aulaire a French politician.
Apr 10 William Hazlitt an English writer, remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, as the greatest art critic of his age, and as a drama critic, social commentator, and philosopher. He was also a painter. He is now considered one of the great critics and essayists of the English language, placed in the company of Samuel Johnson and George Orwell. Yet his work is currently little read and mostly out of print. During his lifetime he befriended many people who are now part of the 19th-century literary canon, including Charles and Mary Lamb, Stendhal, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and William Wordsworth
May 12 José de la Mar a Peruvian military leader, politician and the third President of Peru.
May 13 Honoré V Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois. He was born Honoré Gabriel Grimaldi, the first son of Honoré IV of Monaco and Louise d'Aumont. He died unmarried; his younger brother, Prince Florestan, succeeded him
May 15 Aleksander Stanisław Potocki a Polish noble, landowner and politician. He was the senator-castellan of the Polish Kingdom in 1824 and chamberlain of Napoleon He was awarded Order of the White Eagle on 24 May 1829
May 18 Andrew Ure a Scottish doctor, scholar, chemist. and early business theorist.
May 18 Charles Vane 3rd Marquess of Londonderry a British soldier, politician and nobleman.
May 19 Ludwik Michał Pac a Polish general in the Napoleonic army. His parents were Michał Józef Pac and Ludwika Tyzenhaus
Jun 7 Beau Brummell an iconic figure in Regency England, the arbiter of men's fashion, and a friend of the Prince Regent, the future King George He established the mode of dress for men that rejected overly ornate fashions for one of understated, but perfectly fitted and tailored bespoke garments. This look was based on dark coats, full-length trousers rather than knee breeches and stockings, and above all immaculate shirt linen and an elaborately knotted cravat
Jun 13 Frederick Louis Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin a hereditary prince of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, one of the constituent states of the German Confederation. He was the son of Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and of Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Jun 17 Gregory Blaxland an English pioneer farmer and explorer in Australia, noted for initiating and co-leading the first successful crossing of the Blue Mountains by European settlers.
Jun 20 Jean Baptiste Gay vicomte de Martignac a moderate royalist French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration 1814–30 under King Charles X.
Jun 26 Mariya Svistunova a lady-in-waiting at the Russian Court and a convert to Roman Catholicism. She was the daughter of writer Aleksei Andreevich Rzhevsky and Glafira Ivanovna Rzhevskaya. She married Nikolai Petrovich Svistunov and they had two sons and four daughters
Jul 3 Carl Ludvig Engel a German architect known for his Empire style, a phase of Neoclassicism. He had a great impact on the architecture of Finland in the first part of the 19th century
Jul 6 Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent a French naturalist.
Jul 10 Sigismund von Neukomm an Austrian composer and pianist.
Jul 30 Henry Duke of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania, ruler of the non-sovereign principality of Anhalt-Pless and the last ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Köthen.
Aug 11 Friedrich Ludwig Jahn a German gymnastics educator and nationalist. His admirers know him as Turnvater Jahn, roughly meaning "father of gymnastics" Jahn
Aug 20 Bernardo O'Higgins a Chilean independence leader who, together with José de San Martín, freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. Although he was the second Supreme Director of Chile , he is considered one of Chile's founding fathers, as he was the first holder of this title to head a fully independent Chilean state. O'Higgins was of Spanish and Irish ancestry
Aug 22 James Kirke Paulding an American writer and, for a time, the United States Secretary of the Navy.
Aug 31 William Wilkins (architect) an English architect, classical scholar and archaeologist. He designed the National Gallery and University College London, and buildings for several Cambridge colleges