Born in 1779

Jan 1 William Clowes (printer) a printer who developed the use of steam-powered printing presses in the industry. He founded the printing firm which became William Clowes Ltd. in London in 1803
Jan 5 Zebulon Pike named. As a United States Army captain in 1806–1807, he led the Pike Expedition, sent out by President Thomas Jefferson, to explore and document the southern portion of the Louisiana territory and to find the headwaters of the Red River, during which he recorded the discovery of what later was called Pikes Peak. The Pike expedition coincided with other Jefferson expeditions including the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis expedition. The Pike Expedition traveled through present-day Colorado after his party confused their location. This led to capture by Spanish, who sent Pike and his men to Chihuahua, present-day Mexico and questioned by the governor. They were released later in 1807 at the border of Louisiana
Jan 5 Stephen Decatur a United States naval officer and Commodore notable for his many naval victories in the early 19th century.
Jan 8 Julia Glover an Irish-born stage actress well known for her comic roles in the late 18th and 19th centuries.
Jan 15 Jean Coralli a French dancer and choreographer and later held the esteemed post of First Balletmaster of the Paris Opera Ballet. He is best known for the creation of the Romantic ballet Giselle which he choreographed in tandem with another French dancer, Jules Perrot
Jan 17 Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily a Princess of Naples and Sicily and later Queen of Sardinia as wife of Charles Felix of Sardinia.
Jan 18 Peter Mark Roget a British physician, natural theologian and lexicographer. He is best known for publishing, in 1852, the Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases , a classified collection of related words
Jan 22 Carl Reinhold Sahlberg a Finno-Swede naturalist, primarily an entomologist specializing in beetles.
Jan 22 Stefano Pavesi an Italian composer.
Jan 24 Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Baden) was, as Elizabeth Alexeievna, , Empress of Russia during her marriage with Emperor Alexander I.
Jan 27 Georg Anton Schäffer a German physician in the employ of the Russian-American Company who attempted to conquer Hawaii for the Company and, ultimately, the Russian Empire. The bloodless Schäffer Affair or the Hawaiian spectacular, as it was called by contemporary Russians, became a significant financial blunder for the Company
Feb 9 Mademoiselle Mars born in Paris, the natural daughter of the actor-author named Monvel and Jeanne-Marie Salvetat , an actress known as Madame Mars, whose southern accent had made her Paris debut a failure.
Feb 21 Friedrich Carl von Savigny a famous 19th-century jurist and historian.
Feb 23 Prince Octavius of Great Britain the 13th child and eighth son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Six months after the death of his brother Prince Alfred, Octavius was inoculated with the smallpox virus. Several days later, he became ill. His subsequent death at the age of four devastated his parents, and in particular his father. George bemoaned his son's death, of whom he was exceedingly fond; the king's later bouts of madness would involve hallucinations of his young son
Feb 23 Johann Caspar Aiblinger a German composer.
Feb 24 Matija Ahacel a Carinthian Slovene philologist, publicist, and collector of folk songs.
Feb 27 Thomas Hazlehurst (businessman) an English businessman who founded the soap and alkali manufacturing company of Hazlehurst & Sons in Runcorn, Cheshire. He was also a devoted Methodist and he played a large part in the civic matters of the town
Mar 1 Gottfried Weber a prominent German writer on music , composer, and jurist.
Mar 2 Joel Roberts Poinsett an American physician and diplomat. He was the first U.S. agent in South America, a member of the South Carolina legislature and the United States House of Representatives, the first United States Minister to Mexico , a U.S. Secretary of War under Martin Van Buren, and a cofounder of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science and the Useful Arts , as well as the eponym of Poinsett County, Arkansas; Poinsett Highway, Poinsett Bridge, and Poinsett State Park in South Carolina; Lake Poinsett in South Dakota; and the poinsettia, a popular Christmas plant
Mar 3 Matthäus Casimir von Collin a leading poet in the Vienna of his time. Some of his works have been set to music by Schubert, such as Der Zwerg , Wehmut and Nacht und Träume
Mar 6 Antoine-Henri Jomini a Swiss officer who served as a general in the French and later in the Russian service, and one of the most celebrated writers on the Napoleonic art of war. According to the historian John Shy, Jomini "deserves the dubious title of founder of modern strategy." Jomini's ideas were a staple at military academies. The senior generals of the American Civil War—those who had attended West Point—were well versed in Jomini's theories
Mar 6 Giovanni Battista Bugatti the official executioner for the Papal States from 1796 to 1865. He was the longest-serving executioner in the States and was nicknamed Mastro Titta, a Roman corruption of maestro di giustizia, or master of justice. At the age of 85, he was retired by Pope Pius IX with a monthly pension of 30 scudi
Mar 10 Frances Trollope an English novelist and writer who published as Mrs. Trollope or Mrs. Frances Trollope. Her first book, Domestic Manners of the Americans has been the best known, but she also published strong social novels: an anti-slavery novel said to influence the work of the American Harriet Beecher Stowe, the first industrial novel, and two anti-Catholic novels that used a Protestant position to examine self-making
Mar 11 Philip Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg a field marshal in the imperial Austrian army. He was the ruling Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg from 1839 until his death
Mar 15 William Lamb 2nd Viscount Melbourne a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary and Prime Minister. He is best known for his intense and successful mentoring of Queen Victoria, at ages 18–21, in the ways of politics. Historians conclude that Melbourne does not rank high as a prime minister, for there were no great foreign wars or domestic issues to handle, he lacked major achievements and enunciated no grand principles. "But he was kind, honest, and not self-seeking."
Mar 19 Józef Dwernicki a General of Cavalry in the Polish Army, and a participant in the November Uprising.
Mar 21 José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero Marquis of Torre Tagle a Peruvian soldier and politician, occupying the Peruvian presidency from 1823 to 1824.
Mar 22 Antoine Virgile Schneider a soldier and politician. He was Minister of War under the July Monarchy in the second government of Jean de Dieu Soult of 12 May 1839 on 1 March 1840
Apr 8 Johann Schweigger a German chemist, physicist, and professor of mathematics born in Erlangen.
Apr 13 Friedrich von Müller (statesman) a German statesman.
Apr 16 Giovanni Inghirami an Italian astronomer, and a Piarist religious. There is a valley on the moon named after him as well as a crater
Apr 22 Ivan Kozlov a Russian Romantic poet and translator. As S. Mirsky noted, "his poetry appealed to the easily awakened emotions of the sentimental reader rather than to the higher poetic receptivity"
Apr 27 Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia a grand duke of Russia and the second son of Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. He was the Tsesarevich of Russia throughout the reign of his elder brother Alexander I, but had secretly renounced his claim to the throne in 1823. For 25 days after the death of Alexander I, from 19 November /1 December 1825 to 14 December /26 December 1825 he was known as His Imperial Majesty Constantine I Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, although he never reigned and never acceded to the throne. The succession controversy became the immediate cause of the Decembrist revolt
May 3 Jean Vincent Félix Lamouroux a French biologist and naturalist, noted for his seminal work with algae.
May 28 Thomas Moore an Irish poet, singer, songwriter, and entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of The Minstrel Boy and The Last Rose of Summer. He was responsible, with John Murray, for burning Lord Byron's memoirs after his death. In his lifetime he was often referred to as Anacreon Moore
Jun 3 Pierre Amédée Jaubert a French diplomat, academic, orientalist, translator, politician, and traveler. He was Napoleon's "favourite orientalist adviser and dragoman"
Jun 5 Gheorghe Lazăr a Transylvanian-born Romanian scholar, the founder of the first Romanian language school - in Bucharest, 1818.
Jun 23 Charles Austen an officer in the Royal Navy. He served during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and beyond, eventually rising to the rank of rear-admiral
Jun 30 Adam Müller a German publicist, literary critic, political economist, theorist of the state and forerunner of economic romanticism.
Jul 13 William Hedley born in Newburn, near Newcastle upon Tyne. He was one of the leading industrial engineers of the early 19th century, and was instrumental in several major innovations in early railway development. While working as a 'viewer' or manager at Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne, he built the first practical steam locomotive which relied simply on the adhesion of iron wheels on iron rails
Jul 15 Clement Clarke Moore an American Professor of Oriental and Greek Literature, as well as Divinity and Biblical Learning, at the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in New York City. Located on land donated by the "Bard of Chelsea" himself, the seminary still stands today on Ninth Avenue between 20th and 21st Streets, in an area known as Chelsea Square. Moore's connection with that institution continued for over twenty-five years. He is the author of the yuletide poem "A Visit from Nicholas", which later became famous as "'Twas the Night Before Christmas"
Jul 27 Gustav von Ewers a German legal historian and the founder of Russian legal history as a scholarly discipline.
Jul 30 Joseph Bara also written Barra a young French republican drummer boy at the time of the Revolution.
Aug 1 Lorenz Oken a German naturalist, botanist, biologist, and ornithologist. Oken was born Lorenz Okenfuss in Bohlsbach , Ortenau, Baden, and studied natural history and medicine at the universities of Freiburg and Würzburg. He went on to the University of Göttingen, where he became a Privatdozent , and shortened his name to Oken. As Lorenz Oken, he published a small work entitled Grundriss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der Sinne, mit der darauf gegründeten Classification der Thiere. This was the first of a series of works which established him as a leader of the movement of "Naturphilosophie" in Germany
Aug 1 Francis Scott Key an American lawyer, author, and amateur poet, from Georgetown, who wrote the lyrics to the United States' national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner".
Aug 7 Louis de Freycinet a French navigator. He circumnavigated the earth, and in 1811 published the first map to show a full outline of the coastline of Australia
Aug 7 Carl Ritter a German geographer. Along with Alexander von Humboldt, he is considered one of the founders of modern geography. From 1825 until his death, he occupied the first chair in geography at the University of Berlin
Aug 7 John By a British military engineer, best remembered for supervising the construction of the Rideau Canal and, in the process, founded Bytown, that would become the city of Ottawa.
Aug 12 George Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ruled the state of Mecklenburg-Strelitz from 1816 until his death.
Aug 19 Louis Nicolas Philippe Auguste de Forbin the French painter and antiquary who succeeded Vivant Denon as curator of the Musée du Louvre and the other museums of France.