Born in 1780

Jan 3 Michael Thomas Sadler a British Tory Member of Parliament whose Evangelical Anglicanism and prior experience as a Poor Law administrator in Leeds led him to oppose Malthusian theories of population and their use to decry state provision for the poor. He entered the British House of Commons at the behest of the 4th Duke of Newcastle, returned by the pocket borough of Newark as an 'Ultra' opponent of Catholic emancipation, but he devoted much effort in Parliament to urging the extension of the Poor Law to Ireland. In 1832, in the last session of the unreformed House of Commons he brought forward a Bill to regulate the minimum age and maximum working hours of children in the textile industry. He chaired a Select Committee on the Bill which heard evidence from witnesses on overwork and ill-treatment of factory children. No legislation had resulted before the Reform Act passed and in the election which followed Sadler stood for Leeds but failed to be elected. Parliamentary leadership of the factory reform movement passed to Lord Ashley. Publication of the evidence gathered by Sadler's Select Committee had a considerable effect on public opinion: the effect of Sadler's Bill and Committee on the Whig government was to persuade them that new factory legislation was required but that this should be based upon evidence gathered on a sounder basis. When he died, contemporaries mentioned his work on Ireland, population, and poverty as well as his ten-hour bill, but only the latter is now remembered
Jan 5 Camille Alphonse Trézel a French général de division, Minister for War and peer of France during the July Monarchy. He was Assistant Chief of the General Staff on the Morea expedition, and served in the 1830s in the French conquest of Algeria, where he suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Macta
Jan 10 Martin Lichtenstein a German physician, explorer, botanist and zoologist.
Jan 12 Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette a German theologian and biblical scholar.
Jan 14 Henry Baldwin (judge) an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 18, 1830, to April 21, 1844.
Jan 14 Pierre Jean Robiquet a French chemist. He laid founding work in identifying amino acids, the fundamental bricks of proteins. He did this through recognizing the first of them, asparagin, in 1806, in the industry's adoption of industrial dyes, with the identification of alizarin in 1826, and in the emergence of modern medications, through the identification of codeine in 1832, a powerful molecule today of widespread use with analgesic and antidiarrheal properties
Jan 15 Hippolyte Bouchard a French Argentine sailor, pirate and corsair who fought for Argentina, Chile, and Peru.
Jan 23 Georgios Karaiskakis a famous Greek klepht, armatolos, military commander, and a hero of the Greek War of Independence.
Jan 27 Juan Álvarez a general and interim president of Mexico for a few months in 1855. He fought in all the major wars of his day, from the War of Independence through the Pastry War, the Mexican-American War, and the War of the Reform to the war against the French Intervention. A liberal reformer, a republican and a federalist, he was the leader of a revolution in support of Benito Juárez's Plan de Ayutla in 1854, which led to the deposition of Antonio López de Santa Anna from power and the beginning of the political era in Mexico's history known as La Reforma
Feb 11 Karoline von Günderrode a German Romantic poet, born in Karlsruhe.
Feb 13 Lewis David de Schweinitz a German-American botanist and mycologist. He is considered by some the "Father of North American Mycology", but also made significant contributions to botany
Feb 14 Johann Friedrich Naumann a German scientist, engraver, and editor. He is regarded as the founder of scientific ornithology in Europe. He published The Natural History of German Birds and The Eggs of German Birds. His father Johann Andreas Naumann was a naturalist, and his brother Carl Andreas Naumann was also an ornithologist
Feb 14 John Bowen (colonist) a naval officer and colonial administrator, who led the first settlement of Tasmania at Risdon Cove.
Feb 15 Alfred Edward Chalon a Swiss portrait painter. He lived in London where he was noticed by Queen Victoria
Feb 19 Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen a German philologist, chiefly distinguished for his researches in Old German literature.
Feb 19 Richard McCarty (U.S. politician) an American politician from New York.
Feb 26 Christian Samuel Weiss a German mineralogist born in Leipzig.
Mar 2 Custodio García Rovira a Neogranadine general, statesman and painter, who fought for the independence of New Granada from Spain, and became President of the United Provinces of the New Granada in 1816. He was executed a month later during the Reconquista, at the hands of Pablo Morillo
Mar 6 Ignaz Franz Castelli an Austrian dramatist born in Vienna. He studied law at the university, and then entered the government service
Mar 7 Alexandre Deschapelles a French chess player who, between the death of Philidor and the arrival of Louis de la Bourdonnais, was probably the strongest player in the world. He was considered the unofficial world champion from about 1800-1820
Mar 17 Thomas Chalmers a Scottish minister, professor of theology, political economist, and a leader of the Church of Scotland and of the Free Church of Scotland. He has been called "Scotland's greatest nineteenth-century churchman"
Mar 17 August Leopold Crelle a German mathematician. He was born in Eichwerder near Wriezen, Brandenburg, and died in Berlin. He is the founder of Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik. He befriended Niels Henrik Abel and published seven of Abel's papers in the first volume of his journal
Mar 17 James Atkinson (Persian scholar) a surgeon, artist and Persian scholar - "a Renaissance man among Anglo-Indians".
Mar 18 Miloš Obrenović I Prince of Serbia Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans
Mar 20 José Joaquín de Olmedo y Maruri Patriot and poet, son of the Spanish Captain Don Miguel de Olmedo y Troyano and the Guayaquilean Ana Francisca de Maruri y Salavarría.
Mar 29 Jørgen Jørgensen a Danish adventurer during the Age of Revolution. During the Action of 2 March 1808 his ship was captured by the British. In 1809 he sailed to Iceland, declared the country independent from Denmark and pronounced himself its ruler. He was also a prolific writer of letters, papers, pamphlets and newspaper articles covering a wide variety of subjects, and was an associate of the famous botanists Joseph Banks and William Jackson Hooker for a period
Apr 4 Edward Hicks an American folk painter and distinguished minister of the Society of Friends. He became a Quaker icon because of his paintings
Apr 11 Léon Jean Marie Dufour a French medical doctor and naturalist.
Apr 13 Alexander Mitchell (engineer) an Irish engineer who from 1802 was blind. He is known as the inventor of the screw-pile lighthouse. He was a native of Dublin, and received his formal education at Belfast Academy where he excelled in mathematics
Apr 22 Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg a daughter of Prince Charles Christian, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg and Carolina of Orange-Nassau, daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is her descendant through her granddaughter, Queen Mary of Teck. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is her descendant through her granddaughter Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg, who happens to be the grandmother of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark. Juan Carlos I of Spain is a descendant of her granddaughter Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria, the grandmother of Alfonso XIII of Spain
Apr 26 Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert a German physician and naturalist.
Apr 29 Charles Nodier often underestimated by literary historians.
May 1 Philip Marheineke a German Protestant church leader within the Evangelical Church in Prussia.
May 1 John McKinley a U.S. Senator from the state of Alabama and an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court
May 1 Princess Augusta of Prussia a German salonist and Electress consort of Hesse. She was the third daughter and fifth child of Frederick William II of Prussia and Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was the first consort of William II, Elector of Hesse. Augusta was a talented painter. Among the messages left by her works are also self-portraits
May 5 Michele Tenore an Italian botanist active in Rome, Italy.
May 9 William J. Duane an Irish born American politician and lawyer from Pennsylvania.
May 11 Carl Benedict Hase born at Sulza near Naumburg.
May 14 Jules de Polignac a French statesman. He was an ultra-royalist politician after the Revolution and prime minister under Charles X just before the 1830 July Revolution which overthrew the Bourbon dynasty
May 20 Bernardino Rivadavia the first president of Argentina, then called the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, from February 8, 1826 to July 7, 1827.
May 21 Elizabeth Fry an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. She has sometimes been referred to as the "angel of prisons"
May 29 Henri Braconnot a French chemist and pharmacist.
Jun 1 Carl von Clausewitz a German general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege , was unfinished at his death. Clausewitz was a realist and used the more rationalist ideas of the European Enlightenment. His thinking is often described as Hegelian because of his references to dialectical thinking but, although he was probably personally acquainted with Hegel, there remains debate as to whether or not Clausewitz was in fact a disciple. He stressed the dialectical interaction of diverse factors, noting how unexpected developments unfolding under the "fog of war" call for rapid decisions by alert commanders. He saw history as a vital check on erudite abstractions that did not accord with experience. In contrast to Antoine-Henri Jomini, he argued that war could not be quantified or reduced to mapwork, geometry, and graphs. Clausewitz had many aphorisms, of which the most famous is one that he himself never wrote: "War is the continuation of Politik by other means" , a description that has since won wide acceptance. Instead, Clausewitz actually wrote: "War is the continuation of Politik with other means". The inclusion of the German preposition "mit" changes the content of the sentence radically
Jun 3 Friedrich Christian Rosenthal a German anatomist who was a native of Greifswald.
Jun 11 Bernhard von Lindenau a German lawyer, astronomer, politician, and art collector.
Jun 14 Henry Salt (Egyptologist) an English artist, traveller, collector of antiquities, diplomat, and Egyptologist.
Jun 15 Theodor Franz Count Baillet von Latour an Austrian soldier and statesman. As the Imperial Minister of War, he was killed by a mob at the beginning of the Vienna Uprising
Jun 16 Ludwig von Welden an Austrian army officer whose career culminated in becoming the commander-in-chief of the Austrian artillery.
Jun 17 Antoni Potocki (1780–1850) a Polish nobleman.
Jul 3 André Parmentier (landscape architect) the one of a generation of American landscape designers who arrived from Europe in the early years after Independence. Many of these designers, including William Russell Birch and George Isham Parkyns, also practiced landscape depiction, reinforcing the picturesque connection of landscape art as both making and representing places