Died in 1780

Jan 10 Francesco Antonio Vallotti an Italian composer, music theorist, and organist.
Jan 13 Duchess Luise of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his wife Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Jan 24 Hiraga Gennai well known for his Erekiteru , Kandankei and Kakanpu. He also wrote the satirical essay "On Farting."
Jan 31 Jonathan Carver a colonial Massachusetts explorer and writer. He was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts and then moved with his family to Canterbury, Connecticut. He later married Abigail Robbins and became a shoemaker. He is believed to have had seven children
Feb 1 Johann Ludwig Krebs a Baroque musician and composer primarily for the pipe organ.
Feb 14 Gabriel de Saint-Aubin a French draftsman, printmaker, etcher and painter.
Feb 14 William Blackstone an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century. He is most noted for writing the Commentaries on the Laws of England. Born into a middle-class family in London, Blackstone was educated at Charterhouse School before matriculating at Pembroke College, Oxford in 1738. After switching to and completing a Bachelor of Civil Law degree, he was made a Fellow of All Souls, Oxford on 2 November 1743, admitted to Middle Temple, and called to the Bar there in 1746. Following a slow start to his career as a barrister, Blackstone became heavily involved in university administration, becoming accountant, treasurer and bursar on 28 November 1746 and Senior Bursar in 1750. Blackstone is considered responsible for completing the Codrington Library and Warton Building, and simplifying the complex accounting system used by the college. On 3 July 1753 he formally gave up his practice as a barrister and instead embarked on a series of lectures on English law, the first of their kind. These were massively successful, earning him a total of £61,000 in 2014 terms, and led to the publication of An Analysis of the Laws of England in 1756, which repeatedly sold out and was used to preface his later works
Feb 17 Andreas Felix von Oefele a German historian and librarian.
Feb 20 Johannes Burman a Dutch botanist and physician. Burman specialized in plants from Ceylon, Amboina and Cape Colony. The name Pelargonium was introduced by Johannes Burman
Feb 22 Francesco III d'Este Duke of Modena Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1737 until his death.
Feb 24 Johan Adam Pollich a German doctor, botanist and entomologist.
Mar 3 Joseph Highmore an English portrait and historical painter, illustrator and author.
Mar 20 Benjamin Truman a notable English entrepreneur and brewer during the 18th century. He is notable for the expansion of the Truman Brewery in the Spitalfields area of east London
Mar 26 Charles I Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel ruling as Prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1735 until his death.
Apr 23 Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria a German composer, singer, harpsichordist and patron, known particularly for her operas Il trionfo della fedeltà and Talestri, regina delle amazoni. She was also the Regent of Saxony in 1763-1768. Baptised Maria Antonia Walpurgis Symphorosa, she was known as Maria Antonia
May 18 Charles Hardy a Royal Navy officer and colonial governor of New York.
Jun 3 Thomas Hutchinson (governor) a businessman, historian, and a prominent Loyalist politician of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the years before the American Revolution. A successful merchant and politician, Hutchinson was active at high levels of the Massachusetts government for many years, serving as lieutenant governor and then governor from 1758 to 1774. He was a politically polarising figure who, despite initial opposition to Parliamentary tax laws directed at the colonies, came to be identified by John Adams and Samuel Adams as a proponent of hated British taxes. He was blamed by Lord North for being a significant contributor to the tensions that led the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War
Jul 4 Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine a Lorraine-born Austrian general and soldier, governor and de facto sovereign of the Austrian Netherlands, and sometime duke of Lorraine.
Jul 14 Charles Batteux a French philosopher and writer on aesthetics.
Jul 18 Gerhard Schøning a Norwegian historian. His Reise som giennem en Deel af Norge i de Aar 1773, 1774, 1775 paa Hans Majestets Kongens Bekostning documenting travel through Trondheim, Gudbrandsdal and Hedmark, Norway in 1773–1775 has been recognized as both a historical reference and as a "minor travel classic."
Jul 19 Yevdokiya Yusupova a Duchess consort of Courland. She married the Duke of Courland, Peter von Biron, on March 6, 1774 in Mitava. She had no issue
Aug 3 Étienne Bonnot de Condillac a French philosopher and epistemologist, who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind.
Aug 8 Tadeusz Rejtan a Polish nobleman. He was a member of the Polish Sejm from the constituency of Nowogródek. Rejtan is remembered for a dramatic gesture he made in September 1773, as a deputy of the Partition Sejm. There, Rejtan tried to prevent the legalization of the first partition of Poland, a scene that has been immortalized in the painting Rejtan by Jan Matejko. He has been the subject of many other art works, and is a symbol of patriotism in Poland. Despite his efforts, the partition of Poland was legalized soon afterwards
Aug 19 Johann de Kalb a German-born French officer who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and was killed in action during the Battle of Camden.
Aug 29 Jacques-Germain Soufflot a French architect in the international circle that introduced neoclassicism. His most famous work is the Panthéon in Paris, built from 1755 onwards, originally as a church dedicated to Saint Genevieve
Sep 8 Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont a French author who wrote the best known version of Beauty and the Beast. She had a relationship with the spy for the British Thomas Pichon
Sep 8 Enoch Poor a brigadier general in the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. He was a ship builder and merchant from Exeter, New Hampshire
Sep 23 Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond marquise du Deffand a French hostess and patron of the arts.
Sep 23 Ernest Frederick III Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen a duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Oct 2 John André a British Army officer hanged as a spy by the Continental Army during the American War of Independence for assisting Benedict Arnold's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British.
Oct 7 Józef Kanty Ossoliński a magnate in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Supported Stanisław Leszczyński, although abandoned him in 1733 when his cause looked worse and from 1735 he became a supporter of August III the Saxon. He became a close ally of hetman Jan Klemens Branicki and his political group, and one of the most known opponents of the familia. From 1757 he became the voivode of Wołyń and received the Order of the White Eagle. He opposed the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, who at that time received support from the Russian Empire. Supporter of the Bar Confederation. In 1775 he resigned his voivode office and retreated from politics
Oct 7 Patrick Ferguson a Scottish officer in the British Army, an early advocate of light infantry and the designer of the Ferguson rifle. He is best known for his service in the 1780 military campaign of Charles Cornwallis during the American Revolutionary War in the Carolinas, in which he aggressively recruited Loyalists and harshly treated Patriot sympathisers. Some dispute this characterization of Ferguson as showing pro-Patriot bias, however, and other accounts praise him for his humanity and unwillingness to follow orders he considered barbaric
Oct 17 William Cookworthy an English Quaker minister, a successful pharmacist and an innovator in several fields of technology.
Oct 17 Bernardo Bellotto an Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, and printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities. He was the pupil and nephew of Canaletto and sometimes used the latter's illustrious name, signing himself as Bernardo Canaletto. In Germany and Poland, Bellotto called himself by his uncle's name, Canaletto
Nov 14 Jacobus Houbraken a Dutch engraver and the son of the artist and biographer Arnold Houbraken , whom he assisted in producing a published record of the lives of artists from the Dutch Golden Age.
Nov 16 Nicolas Joseph Laurent Gilbert a French poet born at Fontenoy-le-Château, Vosges, Lorraine.
Nov 26 James Steuart (economist) a prominent Jacobite and author of "probably the first systematic treatise written in English about economics" and the first book in English with 'political economy' in the title. He assumed the surname of Denham late in life; he inherited his cousin's baronetcy of Coltness in 1773
Nov 29 Maria Theresa the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress
Dec 14 Ignatius Sancho a composer, actor, and writer. He is the first known Black Briton to vote in a British election. He gained fame in his time as "the extraordinary Negro", and to 18th-century British abolitionists he became a symbol of the humanity of Africans and immorality of the slave trade. The Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, an African, edited and published two years after his death, is one of the earliest accounts of African slavery written in English by a former slave of Spanish and English families
Dec 15 Charles-Henri-Louis d'Arsac de Ternay a French naval officer. Most active in the Seven Years' War and the War of American Independence, Ternay was the naval commander of a 1762 expedition that successfully captured John's Newfoundland. He was appointed commander of the Marine Royale, French naval forces, as part of the project code named Expédition Particulière that brought French troops to American soil in 1780. He died aboard ship off Newport, Rhode Island
Dec 26 John Fothergill (physician) an English physician, plant collector, philanthropist and Quaker.