1781 in history

1781 events chronologically

Jan 1 American Revolutionary War: 1,500 soldiers of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment under General Anthony Wayne's command rebel against the Continental Army's winter camp in Morristown, New Jersey in the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny of 1781
Jan 5 American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold
Jan 6 In the Battle of Jersey, the British defeat the last attempt by France to invade Jersey
Jan 17 American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cowpens – Continental troops under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan defeat British forces under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton at the battle in South Carolina
Feb 3 American Revolutionary War: British forces seize the Dutch-owned Caribbean island Sint Eustatius
Feb 18 Fourth Anglo-Dutch War: Captain Thomas Shirley opens his expedition against Dutch colonial outposts on the Gold Coast of Africa (present-day Ghana)
Mar 1 The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation

Top 7 most famous people born in 1781

Jan 30 Adelbert von Chamisso a German poet and botanist. He wrote Peter Schlemihl, a famous story about a man who sold his shadow
Mar 13 Karl Friedrich Schinkel a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings
Jun 9 George Stephenson an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830. Renowned as the "Father of Railways", the Victorians considered him a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement, with self-help advocate Samuel Smiles particularly praising his achievements. His rail gauge of 4 feet 8 1⁄2 inches , sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the standard gauge by name and by convention for most of the world's railways
Jun 21 Siméon Denis Poisson a French mathematician, geometer, and physicist. He obtained many important results, but within the elite Académie des Sciences he also was the final leading opponent of the wave theory of light and was proven wrong on that matter by Augustin-Jean Fresnel
Jul 6 Stamford Raffles a British statesman, best known for his founding of the city of Singapore and the London Zoo. He is often described as the "Father of Singapore" and the "Father of the London Zoo". He was also heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire. He was also an amateur writer and wrote a book titled The History of Java
Oct 5 Bernard Bolzano a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.
Dec 11 David Brewster a Scottish physicist, mathematician, astronomer, inventor, writer, historian of science and university principal.

Top 7 most famous people died in 1781

Jan 15 Mariana Victoria of Spain an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the Queen of Portugal as wife of King Joseph The eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, she was engaged to the young Louis XV of France at the age of seven. Rejected due to her age, the marriage never took place and she was sent back to Spain. In 1729 she was married to the son of John V of Portugal. As the mother of Maria I of Portugal, she also acted as regent of Portugal during the last months of her husband's life and acted as advisor to her daughter in her reign
Feb 4 Josef Mysliveček a Czech composer who contributed to the formation of late eighteenth-century classicism in music. Mysliveček provided his younger friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with significant compositional models in the genres of symphony, Italian serious opera, and violin concerto; both Wolfgang and his father Leopold Mozart considered him an intimate friend from the time of their first meetings in Bologna in 1770 until he betrayed their trust over the promise of an operatic commission for Wolfgang to be arranged with the management of the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. He was close to the Mozart family, and there are frequent references to him in the Mozart correspondence
Feb 15 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature. He is widely considered by theatre historians to be the first dramaturg
Mar 18 Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot Baron de Laune a French economist and statesman. Originally considered a physiocrat, he is today best remembered as an early advocate for economic liberalism
May 14 Abram Petrovich Gannibal an African kidnapped and brought to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great. He became a major-general, military engineer, governor of Reval and nobleman of the Russian Empire. He is perhaps best known today as the great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin, who wrote an unfinished novel about him, Peter the Great's Negro
May 18 Túpac Amaru II the leader of an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish in Peru. Although unsuccessful, he later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement and an inspiration to myriad causes in Peru
Oct 16 Edward Hawke 1st Baron Hawke an officer of the Royal Navy. He is best remembered for his service during the Seven Years' War , particularly his victory over a French fleet at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759, preventing a French invasion of Britain. A number of Royal Navy warships were named after him, in commemoration of this. He had also won an earlier victory, the Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1747 which made his name. Hawke acquired a reputation as a "fighting officer" which allowed his career to prosper, despite him possessing a number of political enemies. He developed the concept of a Western Squadron, keeping an almost continuous blockade of the French coast throughout the war