Born in 1781

Jan 9 Johann Baptist von Spix a German biologist. From his expedition to Brazil he brought to Germany a large variety of specimens of plants, insects, mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. They constitute an important basis for today's National Zoological Collection in Munich. Numerous instances of ethnographic collections such as dance masks and the like are now part of the collection of the Museum of Ethnography in Munich
Jan 14 Henry Fynes Clinton an English classical scholar and chronologist.
Jan 19 Christian von Steven a Finnish-born Russian botanist and entomologist of Swiss origin.
Jan 20 Joseph Hormayr Baron zu Hortenburg an Austrian and German statesman and historian.
Jan 22 François Habeneck a French violinist and conductor.
Jan 24 Louis-Mathieu Molé a French statesman and 18th Prime Minister of France.
Jan 26 Ludwig Achim von Arnim a German poet and novelist, and, together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism.
Jan 30 Adelbert von Chamisso a German poet and botanist. He wrote Peter Schlemihl, a famous story about a man who sold his shadow
Feb 6 John Keane 1st Baron Keane an Irish soldier in the British Army.
Feb 6 George Dawe an English portraitist who painted 329 portraits of Russian generals active during Napoleon's invasion of Russia for the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace. He relocated to Saint Petersburg in 1819, where he won acclaim for his work from the artistic establishment and complimentary verses by Pushkin
Feb 8 Princess Wilhelmine Duchess of Sagan a German noble from the Ruling family of Courland and Semigallia and a sovereign Duchess of Sagan. Wilhelmine is mainly known for her relationship with Klemens Metternich, a statesman of the Austrian Empire
Feb 14 Valentín Gómez Farías the President of Mexico for five short periods in the 1830s and 1840s.
Feb 17 Gustav Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg landgrave of the German state of Hesse-Homburg from 1846 to 1848.
Feb 17 René Laennec a French physician. He invented the stethoscope in 1816, while working at the Hôpital Necker and pioneered its use in diagnosing various chest conditions
Feb 26 José María Calatrava y Peinado a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain and Minister of State between 1836 and 1837.
Mar 1 Javiera Carrera a member of one of the most aristocratic Chilean families, the Carrera family of Basque origin, who actively participated in the Chilean War of Independence. Together with her brothers José Miguel, Juan José and Luis, they were some of most important leaders of the early Chilean struggle for independence during the period known as the Patria Vieja. She is credited with having sewn the first national flag of Chile and is considered to be the "Mother of Chile"
Mar 4 Rebecca Gratz a preeminent Jewish American educator and philanthropist.
Mar 7 Józef Zawadzki (publisher) a Polish pressman, publisher, typographer and bibliopolist, one of the most prominent Polish publisher in the 19th century. Bibliopolist of the Vilnius University and initiator of national bibliography. He published 851 books, mostly in Polish language, but also in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and Lithuanian
Mar 12 Frederica of Baden Queen consort of Sweden from 1797 to 1809. Daughter of Karl Ludwig of Baden and Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt, she was the younger sister of Empress Elisabeth Alexeievna , wife of Tsar Alexander I of Russia
Mar 13 Joseph Johann Littrow an Austrian astronomer. In 1837, he was ennobled with the title Joseph Johann Edler von Littrow. He was the father of Karl Ludwig Edler von Littrow and the mentor of the mathematician Nikolai Brashman. His work took him to Russia for a time, which is where his son who succeeded him was born
Mar 13 Karl Friedrich Schinkel a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings
Mar 17 Ebenezer Elliott an English poet, known as the Corn Law rhymer for his leading the fight to repeal the Corn Laws which were causing hardship and starvation among the poor. Though a factory owner himself, his single-minded devotion to the welfare of the labouring classes won him a sympathetic reputation long after his poetry ceased to be read
Mar 18 Louis Athanase Chaubard a French botanist and naturalist.
Mar 27 Alexander Vostokov one of the first Russian philologists.
Apr 3 Swaminarayan the central figure in a modern sect of Hinduism known as the Swaminarayan Hinduism, a form of Vaishnavism. Swaminarayan was born Ghanshyam Pande in Chhapaiya, Uttar Pradesh, India in 1781. In 1792, he began a seven year pilgrimage across India, adopting the name Nilkanth Varni. He settled in the state of Gujarat around 1799. In 1800, he was initiated into the Uddhav Sampraday by his guru, Ramanand Swami, and was given the name Sahajanand Swami. In 1802, his guru handed over the leadership of the Uddhav Sampraday to him before his death. Sahajanand Swami held a gathering and taught the Swaminarayan mantra. From this point onwards, he was known as Swaminarayan and within the sect, he is regarded as an incarnation of God, Purushottama, or is venerated as an incarnation of Narayana from the Nara-Narayana deity pair by his followers. The Uddhav Sampraday became known as the Swaminarayan Sampraday
Apr 7 Francis Leggatt Chantrey an English sculptor. He became the leading portrait sculptor in the Regency era Britain, producing busts and statues of many notable figures of the time. He left the Chantrey Bequest or Chantrey Fund for the purchase of works of art for the nation, which was available from 1878 after the death of his widow
Apr 22 Friedrich Christian Hermann Uber a German composer, who also served as the cantor of the Kreuzkirche in Dresden.
Apr 22 José de Madrazo y Agudo a Spanish painter of the Neoclassic period. He was the father of the painters Federico de Madrazo and Luis de Madrazo
Apr 25 Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este, last member and heiress of the House of Este. For much of the Napoleonic Wars he was in command of the Austrian army
Apr 30 George Washington Parke Custis the step-grandson and adopted son of United States President George Washington, and father-in-law of Robert Lee. He spent his large inherited fortune building Arlington House on the Potomac opposite Washington D.C. After his death, the estate was left to the Lee family, but was confiscated after the outbreak of the American Civil War. Later, the confiscation was rescinded, and Congress bought the estate back from the family. The house is now the Robert Lee Memorial and the plantation became Arlington National Cemetery and Fort Myer. He also wrote historical plays about Virginia, a number of patriotic addresses, and a memoir of life in the Washington household
May 6 Karl Christian Friedrich Krause a German philosopher, born at Eisenberg, in Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. His philosophy, known as "Krausism", was very influential in Restoration Spain
May 8 Pedro de Sousa Holstein 1st Duke of Palmela one of the most important Portuguese diplomats and statesmen in the first half of the 19th century. He also served as the country's first official Prime Minister, the office in essence having already existed
May 9 Henri Cassini a French botanist and naturalist, who specialised in the sunflower family.
May 14 Friedrich Ludwig Georg von Raumer a German historian. He was the first scientific historian to popularise history in German. He travelled extensively and served in German legislative bodies
May 24 Louis François Dauprat a French horn player, composer and music professor at the Conservatoire de Paris. He played and taught only natural horn, but was also very interested in the first experiments with keyed horns. He successfully ensured the development of a distinctively French school of playing, marginally influenced by the invention of the valve horn
May 26 Sir George Staunton 2nd Baronet an English traveller and Orientalist.
Jun 5 Christian Lobeck a German classical scholar.
Jun 9 George Stephenson an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830. Renowned as the "Father of Railways", the Victorians considered him a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement, with self-help advocate Samuel Smiles particularly praising his achievements. His rail gauge of 4 feet 8 1⁄2 inches , sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the standard gauge by name and by convention for most of the world's railways
Jun 21 Siméon Denis Poisson a French mathematician, geometer, and physicist. He obtained many important results, but within the elite Académie des Sciences he also was the final leading opponent of the wave theory of light and was proven wrong on that matter by Augustin-Jean Fresnel
Jul 5 Aizawa Seishisai a Japanese nationalist thinker of the Mito school during the late shogunate period.
Jul 6 Stamford Raffles a British statesman, best known for his founding of the city of Singapore and the London Zoo. He is often described as the "Father of Singapore" and the "Father of the London Zoo". He was also heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire. He was also an amateur writer and wrote a book titled The History of Java
Jul 8 Tom Cribb an English bare-knuckle boxer of the 19th century, so successful that he became world champion.
Jul 9 Nikita Volkonsky a Russian general from the Volkonsky family. He took part in the Napoleonic wars and later converted from Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism
Jul 11 Bartolomeo Borghesi an Italian antiquarian who was a key figure in establishing the science of numismatics.
Jul 23 William John Burchell an English explorer, naturalist, traveller, artist and author. He was the son of Matthew Burchell, botanist and owner of Fulham Nursery, nine and a half acres of land adjacent to the gardens of Fulham Palace. Burchell served a botanical apprenticeship at Kew and was elected F.L.S. in 1803. At about this time, he became enamoured of a Miss Lucia Green of Fulham, but faced strong disapproval from his parents when he broached the idea of an engagement
Jul 23 Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld a German princess of the ducal house of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld who became the wife of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia.
Jul 25 Merry-Joseph Blondel a French history painter of the Neoclassical school. He was a winner of the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1803. After the salon of 1824, he was bestowed with the rank of Knight in the order of the Legion d'Honneur by Charles X of France and offered a professorship at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts: a position in which he remained until his death in 1853. In 1832, he was elected to a seat at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris
Jul 27 Mauro Giuliani an Italian guitarist, cellist, singer, and composer. A leading guitar virtuoso of the early 19th century
Aug 9 Michael Umlauf an Austrian composer, conductor, and violinist. His father, Ignaz Umlauf, was also a notable composer. His sister Elisabeth Hölzel had a career as a contralto and her son Gustav Hölzel was an important bass-baritone
Aug 23 Friedrich Tiedemann a German anatomist and physiologist.