Died in 1781

Jan 8 Alexey Nagayev a Russian hydrographer, cartographer and an admiral. Coming from scanty noble family, he graduated from Petersburg Naval Academy and worked ibidem. During the Seven Years' War Nagayev headed the hydrographic expedition to the Prussian shores. He also compiled the first atlases of the Bering Sea and Baltic Sea. Despite the absence of meridional grid, Nagayev's maps have been used for over fifty years. In 1764-65 Nagayev has been the supreme commander of the Kronstadt port. A bay in the Okhotsk Sea is named after him
Jan 12 Richard Challoner an English Roman Catholic bishop, a leading figure of English Catholicism during the greater part of the 18th century. He is perhaps most famous for his revision of the Douay Rheims translation of the Bible
Jan 15 Mariana Victoria of Spain an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the Queen of Portugal as wife of King Joseph The eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, she was engaged to the young Louis XV of France at the age of seven. Rejected due to her age, the marriage never took place and she was sent back to Spain. In 1729 she was married to the son of John V of Portugal. As the mother of Maria I of Portugal, she also acted as regent of Portugal during the last months of her husband's life and acted as advisor to her daughter in her reign
Feb 4 Josef Mysliveček a Czech composer who contributed to the formation of late eighteenth-century classicism in music. Mysliveček provided his younger friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with significant compositional models in the genres of symphony, Italian serious opera, and violin concerto; both Wolfgang and his father Leopold Mozart considered him an intimate friend from the time of their first meetings in Bologna in 1770 until he betrayed their trust over the promise of an operatic commission for Wolfgang to be arranged with the management of the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. He was close to the Mozart family, and there are frequent references to him in the Mozart correspondence
Feb 5 Prince Levan of Georgia a Georgian prince of the Bagrationi dynasty, born to King Heraclius II and Queen Darejan Dadiani. His career flourished in the 1770s, when he was an ambassador to the Russian Empire and then an army commander. Levan was a talented general and a major supporter of his father's military reforms which eroded irreversibly after Levan's mysterious death in 1781
Feb 15 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature. He is widely considered by theatre historians to be the first dramaturg
Feb 23 George Taylor (delegate) a Colonial ironmaster and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Pennsylvania. Today, his former home, the George Taylor House in Catasauqua, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, is a National Historic Landmark owned by the Borough of Catasauqua
Feb 24 Edward Capell an English Shakespearian critic.
Feb 28 Richard Stockton (Continental Congressman) an American lawyer, jurist, legislator, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Mar 1 Jean-Baptiste de La Curne de Sainte-Palaye a French historian, classicist, philologist and lexicographer.
Mar 18 Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot Baron de Laune a French economist and statesman. Originally considered a physiocrat, he is today best remembered as an early advocate for economic liberalism
Mar 23 Johann Anton Güldenstädt a Baltic German naturalist and explorer in Russian service.
Apr 3 George Bogle (diplomat) a Scottish adventurer and diplomat, the first to establish diplomatic relations with Tibet and to attempt recognition by the Chinese Qing Empire. His mission is still used today as a reference point in debates between China and Tibetan independence activists
Apr 23 James Abercrombie (British Army general) a British Army general and commander-in-chief of forces in North America during the French and Indian War, best known for the disastrous British losses in the 1758 Battle of Carillon.
Apr 28 Cornelius Harnett an American merchant, farmer, and statesman from Wilmington, North Carolina. He was a leading American Revolutionary in the Cape Fear region, and a delegate for North Carolina in the Continental Congress from 1777 to 1779
May 8 Richard Jago an English poet. He was the third son of Richard Jago, Rector of Beaudesert, Warwickshire
May 13 William Amherst (British Army officer) a British military commander. In 1762 during the Seven Years' War he led British forces that defeated a French expedition to Newfoundland at the Battle of Signal Hill
May 14 Abram Petrovich Gannibal an African kidnapped and brought to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great. He became a major-general, military engineer, governor of Reval and nobleman of the Russian Empire. He is perhaps best known today as the great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin, who wrote an unfinished novel about him, Peter the Great's Negro
May 18 Túpac Amaru II the leader of an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish in Peru. Although unsuccessful, he later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement and an inspiration to myriad causes in Peru
May 23 Ablai Khan a Kazakh khan of the Middle jüz. Born as Wali-ullah Abul-Mansur Khan, Ablai Khan belonged to the senior branch of descendants of the 15th century founder of the Kazakh state, Janybek Khan. In the first half of the 18th century, Ablai Khan proved to be a talented organizer and commander as he headed detachments of the Kazakh militia fighting the Dzungars. He participated in the most significant battles against the Dzungars from the 1720s to the 1750s, for which he was declared a "batyr" by the people
May 27 Giovanni Battista Beccaria born at Mondovì, and entered the religious Order of the Pious Schools or Piarists, in 1732, where he studied, and afterward taught, grammar and rhetoric. At the same time, he applied himself with success to mathematics
Jun 25 Samuel Gotthold Lange a German poet.
Jul 18 Fernando Rivera y Moncada a soldier from New Spain who served in the Baja California peninsula and upper Las Californias, participating in several early overland explorations. Fernando Rivera y Moncada served as a Spanish Military Governor from 1774-1777
Jul 23 John Joachim Zubly a Swiss-born American pastor, planter, and statesman during the American Revolution. Although a delegate for Georgia to the Continental Congress in 1775, he resisted independence from Great Britain and became a Loyalist
Jul 29 Johann Kies a German astronomer and mathematician. Born in Tübingen, Kies worked in Berlin in 1751 alongside Jérôme Lalande in order to make observations on the lunar parallax in concert with those of Nicolas Louis de Lacaille at the Cape of Good Hope
Aug 16 Charles-François de Broglie marquis de Ruffec a French soldier and diplomat from a distinguished French military family. He served for some years in the army, and afterwards became one of the foremost diplomatists in the service of Louis He is chiefly remembered in connection with the Secret du Roi
Aug 18 Franz Joseph I Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein from 1772 until his death.
Sep 12 Peter Scheemakers a Flemish sculptor who worked for most of his life in London, Great Britain where his public and church sculptures in a classicist style had an important influence on the development of sculpture.
Sep 18 Tobias Furneaux an English navigator and Royal Navy officer, who accompanied James Cook on his second voyage of exploration. He was the first man to circumnavigate the world in both directions, and later commanded a British vessel during the American Revolutionary War
Sep 30 Jean-Baptiste Le Prince an important French etcher and painter. Le Prince first studied painting techniques in his native Metz. He then travelled to Paris around 1750 and became a leading student of the great painter, François Boucher. Le Prince's early paintings in both theme and style are comparable to his master's rococo techniques
Oct 16 Edward Hawke 1st Baron Hawke an officer of the Royal Navy. He is best remembered for his service during the Seven Years' War , particularly his victory over a French fleet at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759, preventing a French invasion of Britain. A number of Royal Navy warships were named after him, in commemoration of this. He had also won an earlier victory, the Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1747 which made his name. Hawke acquired a reputation as a "fighting officer" which allowed his career to prosper, despite him possessing a number of political enemies. He developed the concept of a Western Squadron, keeping an almost continuous blockade of the French coast throughout the war
Oct 22 Johann August Nahl a German sculptor and stuccist.
Nov 2 José Francisco de Isla a Spanish Jesuit, celebrated as a preacher and a humorist and satirist of the stamp of Cervantes.
Nov 4 Johann Nikolaus Götz a German poet from Worms.
Nov 4 Faustina Bordoni an Italian mezzo-soprano.
Nov 15 Túpac Katari an early leader of the independence activists in Bolivia and a leader of an indigenous rebellion against the Spanish Empire in the early 1780s. His wife was Bartolina Sisa
Nov 17 Bernard-Joseph Saurin a lawyer, poet, and playwright.
Nov 21 Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux Count of Maurepas a French statesman.
Nov 24 James Caldwell (clergyman) a Presbyterian minister who played a prominent part in the American Revolution.
Nov 30 Théodore Tronchin a Swiss physician.
Dec 30 John Needham an English biologist and Roman Catholic priest.