Died in 1782

Jan 1 Johann Christian Bach a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh surviving child and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. He is sometimes referred to as "the London Bach" or "the English Bach", due to his time spent living in the British capital, where he came to be known as John Bach. He is noted for influencing the concerto style of Mozart
Jan 1 Juan Crespí a Franciscan missionary and explorer of Las Californias. A native of Majorca, Crespí entered the Franciscan order at the age of seventeen. He came to New Spain in 1749, and accompanied explorers Francisco Palóu and Junípero Serra. In 1767 he went to the Baja Peninsula and was placed in charge of the Misión La Purísima Concepción de Cadegomó
Jan 4 Ange-Jacques Gabriel the most prominent French architect of his generation.
Jan 18 John Pringle a Scottish physician who has been called the "father of military medicine".
Jan 27 Leopoldine Marie of Anhalt-Dessau the ninth child of Prince Leopold I of Anhalt-Dessau and his wife, Anna Louise Föhse. She married on 13 February 1739 the last margrave Frederick Henry of Brandenburg-Schwedt. After 1788, her Schwedt Castle was used by the Prussian royal family as a summer residence
Jan 28 Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville both a geographer and cartographer who greatly improved the standards of map-making. His maps of ancient geography, characterized by careful, accurate work and based largely on original research, are especially valuable. He left unknown areas of continents blank and noted doubtful information as such; compared to the lavish maps of his predecessors, his maps looked empty
Feb 9 Giuseppe Luigi Assemani a Lebanese orientalist and a Professor of Oriental languages at Rome.
Feb 10 Friedrich Christoph Oetinger a German Lutheran theologian and theosopher.
Feb 14 Singu Min the fourth king of the Konbaung dynasty of Myanmar. The king, who came to power amid controversy, largely put an end to his father Hsinbyushin's policy of territorial expansion, which had severely depleted the kingdom's manpower and resources. He stopped his father's latest war against Siam at his accession, effectively ceding Lan Na to the Siamese. Likewise, he took no action when the Laotian states stopped paying tribute in 1778. The only campaigns were in Manipur, where the Burmese army was forced to put down four rebellions throughout his reign
Feb 14 Manuel de Amat y Junient a Spanish military officer and colonial administrator. He was the Royal Governor of the Captaincy General of Chile from December 28, 1755 to September 9, 1761, and Viceroy of Peru from October 12, 1761 to July 17, 1776
Mar 2 Princess Sophie of France a French princesse du sang. She was the sixth daughter and eighth child of Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Marie Leszczyńska. First known as Madame Cinquième, she later became Madame Sophie
Mar 17 Daniel Bernoulli a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics. His name is commemorated in the Bernoulli principle, a particular example of the conservation of energy, which describes the mathematics of the mechanism underlying the operation of two important technologies of the 20th century: the carburetor and the airplane wing
Apr 4 August Aleksander Czartoryski a Polish-Lithuanian noble , magnate, and founder of the family fortune.
Apr 7 Taksin the only King of the Thonburi Kingdom and was of Thai Chinese heritage. He was a leader in the liberation of Siam from Burmese occupation after the Second Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, and the subsequent unification of Siam after it fell under various warlords. He established the city Thonburi as the new capital, as the city Ayutthaya had been almost completely destroyed by the invaders. His reign was characterized by numerous wars, fought to repel new Burmese invasions and to subjugate the northern Thai kingdom of Lanna, the Laotian principalities, and a threatening Cambodia. He was executed and succeeded by his long-time friend King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke who then created the Chakri dynasty and the Rattanakosin Kingdom
Apr 12 Metastasio an Italian poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti.
Apr 16 Giuseppe Vasi an Italian engraver and architect, best known for his vedute.
Apr 22 Josef Seger a Bohemian organist, composer, and educator. After graduating in philosophy from the Charles University in Prague and studying music under Bohuslav Matěj Černohorský, Jan Zach, and others, Seger became organist of two churches in Prague and remained there until his death
Apr 27 William Talbot 1st Earl Talbot a British politician.
May 8 Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo 1st Marquis of Pombal an 18th-century Portuguese statesman. He was Secretary of the State of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered today to have been the de facto head of government. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. He implemented sweeping economic policies in Portugal to regulate commercial activity and standardize quality throughout the country. Pombal was instrumental in weakening the grip of the Inquisition. The term Pombaline is used to describe not only his tenure, but also the architectural style which formed after the great earthquake
May 13 Daniel Solander a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. Solander was the first university educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil
May 15 Richard Wilson (painter) an influential British landscape painter, who worked in Britain and Italy. With George Lambert he is recognised as a pioneer in British art of landscape for its own sake and was described in the Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales as the "most distinguished painter Wales has ever produced and the first to appreciate the aesthetic possibilities of his country". In December 1768 Wilson became one of the founder-members of the Royal Academy
May 20 William Emerson (mathematician) born at Hurworth, near Darlington, where his father, Dudley Emerson, also a mathematician, taught a school. William himself had a small estate in Weardale called Castle Gate situated not far from Eastgate where he would repair to work throughout the Summer on projects as disparate as stonemasonry and watchmaking. Unsuccessful as a teacher, he devoted himself entirely to studious retirement. Possessed of remarkable energy and forthrightness of speech, Emerson published many works which are singularly free from errata
May 22 Landgravine Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt a member of the House of Hesse and by marriage a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
May 25 Vigilius Eriksen a Danish painter. He was the royal portraitist to Christian VI of Denmark
May 26 Ali II ibn Hussein the fourth leader of the Husainid Dynasty and the ruler of Tunisia from 1759 until his death in 1782.
Jun 13 Anna Göldi known as the "last witch" in Switzerland. She was executed for murder in June 1782 in Glarus
Jun 18 John Wood the Younger an English architect, working principally in the city of Bath, Somerset. He was the son of the architect John Wood, the Elder. His designs were highly influential during the 18th century and the Royal Crescent is considered to be one of the best examples of Georgian Neo-Classical architecture in Britain
Jun 21 Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt a Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt. He was born in Darmstadt
Jul 1 Charles Watson-Wentworth 2nd Marquess of Rockingham KG, PC , styled The Hon. Charles Watson-Wentworth before 1733, Viscount Higham between 1733 and 1746, Earl of Malton between 1746 and 1750 and The Marquess of Rockingham in 1750, was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Prime Minister of Great Britain. He became the patron of many Whigs, known as the Rockingham Whigs, and served as a leading Whig grandee. He served in only two high offices during his lifetime , but was nonetheless very influential during his one and a half years of service
Jul 16 Louisa Ulrika of Prussia Queen of Sweden between 1751 and 1771 as the spouse of King Adolf Frederick, and queen mother during the reign of King Gustav III.
Jul 21 Karl Wilhelm Duke of Saxe-Meiningen a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
Aug 6 Nicolas Chédeville a French composer, musette player and musette maker.
Aug 7 Andreas Sigismund Marggraf a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry. He isolated zinc in 1746 by heating calamine and carbon. Though he was not the first to do so, Marggraf is credited with carefully describing the process and establishing its basic theory. In 1747, Marggraf announced his discovery of sugar in beets and devised a method using alcohol to extract His student Franz Achard later devised an economical industrial method to extract the sugar in its pure form
Aug 12 Stanisław Lubomirski (1722–1782) a Polish nobleman. He was awarded Knight of the Order of the White Eagle on August 3, 1757 in Warsaw
Aug 13 Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau a French physician, naval engineer and botanist.
Aug 18 Princess Caroline of Waldeck and Pyrmont a Duchess consort of Courland.
Aug 19 Francesco de Mura an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, active mainly in Naples and Turin. His late work reflects the style of neoclassicism
Aug 20 Prince Alfred of Great Britain a member of the British Royal Family as the 14th child and ninth son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Alfred became ill after his inoculation against the smallpox virus; his early death at the age of nearly two, along with the demise of his brother Prince Octavius six months later, was a shock to their parents. In his later bouts of madness King George would have imagined conversations with both of his youngest sons
Aug 25 Marianna Auenbrugger an Austrian pianist and composer.
Aug 29 Richard Kempenfelt a British rear-admiral who gained a reputation as a naval innovator. He is best known for his victory against the French at the Second Battle of Ushant and for his death when the HMS Royal George accidentally sank at Portsmouth the following year
Sep 5 John Field (composer) an Irish pianist, composer, and teacher. He was born in Dublin into a musical family, and received his early education there. The Fields soon moved to London, where Field studied under Muzio Clementi. Under his tutelage, Field quickly became a famous and sought-after concert pianist; together, master and pupil visited Paris, Vienna, and Petersburg. Ambiguity surrounds Field's decision to remain in the Russian capital, but it is likely that Field acted as a sales representative for the Clementi Pianos
Sep 6 Martha Jefferson the wife of Thomas Jefferson, who was the third President of the United States. She was a widow at her second marriage, as her first husband had died young. The Jeffersons had six children together, but only two daughters survived to adulthood, and only one past the age of 25. Weakened by childbirth, Martha Jefferson died several months after the birth of her last child
Sep 16 Farinelli the stage name of Carlo Maria Michelangelo Nicola Broschi , celebrated Italian castrato singer of the 18th century and one of the greatest singers in the history of opera.
Oct 2 Charles Lee (general) served as a General of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence. Lee also served earlier in the British Army during the Seven Years War. After the war he sold his commission and served for a time in the Polish army of King Stanislaus In 1773 Lee, who had Whig views, moved to America and bought an estate in Virginia. When the fighting broke out in the American War of Independence in 1775 he volunteered to serve with rebel forces. Lee's ambitions to become Commander in Chief of the Continental Army were thwarted by the appointment of George Washington
Oct 28 Princess Charlotte Amalie of Denmark a Danish princess, issue of King Frederick IV of Denmark and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow.
Nov 19 Princess Maria Christina of Saxony (1735–1782) a Princess of Saxony and later Abbess of Remiremont.
Nov 21 Jacques de Vaucanson a French inventor and artist who was responsible for the creation of impressive and innovative automata and machines such as the first completely automated loom.
Dec 7 Hyder Ali the sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born Hyder Naik, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers. Rising to the post of Dalavayi to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, he came to dominate the titular monarch and the Mysore government. He became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari by 1761. He offered strong anti-colonial resistance against the military advances of the British East India Company during the First and Second Anglo–Mysore Wars, and he was the innovator of military use of the iron-cased Mysorean rockets
Dec 27 Henry Home Lord Kames a Scottish advocate, judge, philosopher, writer and agricultural improver. A central figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, a founder member of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, and active in the Select Society, his protégés included James Boswell, David Hume and Adam Smith
Dec 28 Princess Maria Carolina of Savoy a Princess of Savoy from her birth. She was the youngest daughter of the future Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and married in 1781 to the Electoral Prince of Saxony. She died of Smallpox aged eighteen