Died in 1783

Jan 2 Johann Jakob Bodmer a German-Swiss author, academic, critic and poet.
Jan 31 Caffarelli (castrato) an Italian castrato and opera singer, who took his stage name Caffarelli from Domenico Caffaro, his patron. Like Farinelli, Caffarelli was a student of Nicola Porpora
Feb 6 Capability Brown an English landscape architect. He is remembered as "the last of the great English eighteenth-century artists to be accorded his due", and "England's greatest gardener". He designed over 170 parks, many of which still endure. His influence was so great that the contributions to the English garden made by his predecessors Charles Bridgeman and William Kent are often overlooked; even Kent's apologist Horace Walpole allowed that Kent had been followed by "a very able master"
Feb 10 James Nares an English composer of mostly sacred vocal works, though he also composed for the harpsichord and organ.
Mar 19 Frederick Cornwallis Archbishop of Canterbury, and the twin brother of Edward Cornwallis.
Mar 23 Charles Carroll (barrister) an American lawyer and statesman from Annapolis, Maryland. He was the builder of the Baltimore Colonial home Mount Clare , and a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in 1776 and 1777
Mar 28 Jacob Hochbrucker an eighteenth-century luthier and musician credited with the invention of the single-action pedal harp popularized in Europe between 1729 and 1750 by his descendants, and particularly by the Dauphine, Marie Antoinette, who performed on it after her arrival in Paris in 1770.
Mar 30 William Hunter (anatomist) a Scottish anatomist and physician. He was a leading teacher of anatomy, and the outstanding obstetrician of his day. His guidance and training of his ultimately more famous brother, John Hunter, was also of great importance
Apr 7 Ignaz Holzbauer a composer of symphonies, concertos, operas, and chamber music, and a member of the Mannheim school. His aesthetic style is in line with that of the Sturm und Drang "movement" of German art and literature
Apr 8 David de Gorter a Dutch physician and botanist.
Apr 8 Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt a consort of Baden, a dilettante artist, scientist, collector and salonist.
Apr 11 Nikita Ivanovich Panin an influential Russian statesman and political mentor to Catherine the Great for the first 18 years of her reign. In that role, he advocated the Northern Alliance, closer ties with Frederick the Great of Prussia and the establishment of an advisory privy council. His staunch opposition to the partitions of Poland led to his being replaced by the more compliant Prince Bezborodko
Apr 16 Benedict Joseph Labre a French mendicant, Franciscan tertiary and Catholic saint.
Apr 16 Christian Mayer (astronomer) a Czech astronomer and teacher.
Apr 17 Louise d'Épinay a French writer, a saloniste and woman of fashion, known on account of her liaisons with Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who gives malicious reports of her in his Confessions. and her acquaintanceship with Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Baron d'Holbach and other French men of letters during the Enlightenment. She was also one of many women referenced in Simone de Beauvoir's Second Sex as an example of noble expansion of women's rights during the 18th century
Apr 28 Eyre Coote (East India Company officer) a British soldier. He is best known for his many years of service with the British Army in India. His victory at the Battle of Wandiwash is considered a decisive turning point in the struggle for control in India between British and France. He was known by his sepoy troops as Coote Bahadur
Apr 29 Bernardo Tanucci an Italian statesman, who brought enlightened government to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies for Charles III and his son Ferdinand IV.
May 3 Prince Octavius of Great Britain the 13th child and eighth son of King George III and his queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Six months after the death of his brother Prince Alfred, Octavius was inoculated with the smallpox virus. Several days later, he became ill. His subsequent death at the age of four devastated his parents, and in particular his father. George bemoaned his son's death, of whom he was exceedingly fond; the king's later bouts of madness would involve hallucinations of his young son
May 18 Lucrezia Aguiari an Italian coloratura soprano. She possessed an unusually agile voice with a large vocal range that spanned slightly more than three and a half octaves; faculties that enabled her to perform the most difficult passage work. In a letter dated 24 March 1770 Leopold Mozart wrote of hearing her perform a C an octave above high C at the Ducal opera of Parma, "I could not believe that she was able to reach C soprano acuto, but my ears convinced me." Aldous Huxley also mentioned this event in his novel, Brave New World
May 23 James Otis Jr. a lawyer in colonial Massachusetts, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy that led to the American Revolution. His catchphrase "Taxation without representation is tyranny" became the basic Patriot position
Jul 10 Adam František Kollár a Slovak jurist, Imperial-Royal Court Councilor and Chief Imperial-Royal Librarian, a member of Natio Hungarica in the Kingdom of Hungary, a historian, ethnologist, an influential advocate of Empress Maria Theresa's Enlightened and centralist policies. His advancement of Maria Theresa's status in the Kingdom of Hungary as its apostolic ruler in 1772 was used as an argument in support of the subsequent Habsburg annexations of Galicia and Dalmatia. Kollár is also credited with coining the term ethnology and providing its first definition in 1783. Some authors see him as one of the earliest pro-Slovak, pro-Slavic, and pan-Slavic activists in the Habsburg Monarchy
Jul 27 Johann Kirnberger a musician, composer , and music theorist. Possibly, though not verified, he was a pupil of Johann Sebastian Bach, visiting Leipzig in 1741. According to Ingeborg Allihn, Kirberger played a significant role in the intellectual and cultural exchange between Germany and Poland in the mid-1700s. Between 1741 and 1751 Kirnberger lived and worked in Poland for powerful magnates including Lubomirski, Poninski, and Rzewuski before ending up at the Benedictine Cloister in Lvov. He spent much time collecting Polish national dances and compiled them in his treatise Die Charaktere der Taenze. He became a violinist at the court of Frederick II of Prussia in 1751. He was the music director to the Prussian Princess Anna Amalia from 1758 until his death. Kirnberger greatly admired J.S. Bach, and sought to secure the publication of all of Bach's chorale settings, which finally appeared after Kirnberger's death; see Kirnberger chorale preludes. Many of Bach's manuscripts have been preserved in Kirnberger's library
Aug 3 James Price (chemist) an English chemist and alchemist who claimed to be able to turn mercury into silver or gold. When challenged to perform the conversion in front of credible witnesses for a second time, he instead committed suicide by drinking prussic acid
Aug 19 Franz Xaver Messerschmidt a German-Austrian sculptor most famous for his "character heads", a collection of busts with faces contorted in extreme facial expressions.
Sep 6 Bertinazzi an Italian actor and author. Known to have traveled with Giacomo Casanovas mother, Zanetta Casanova, to Petersburg to perform for Empress Anne Iwanowa, only to return to Italy shortly after, when the Empress did not approve of the Italian Comedy
Sep 18 Benjamin Kennicott an English churchman and Hebrew scholar.
Sep 18 Leonhard Euler a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory
Sep 27 Étienne Bézout a French mathematician who was born in Nemours, Seine-et-Marne, France, and died in Avon , France.
Oct 7 William Tans'ur an English hymn-writer, composer of West gallery music, and teacher of music. His output includes approximately a hundred hymn tunes and psalm settings and a Te Deum. His manual A New Musical Grammar was still popular in the nineteenth century
Oct 8 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Golitsyn a Russian prince of the Galitzine and field marshal. He was the governor of Saint Petersburg in 1780 to 1783
Oct 22 Gerhard Friedrich Müller a historian and pioneer ethnologist.
Oct 29 Jean le Rond d'Alembert a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist. Until 1759 he was also co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie. D'Alembert's formula for obtaining solutions to the wave equation is named after him. The wave equation is sometimes referred to as d'Alembert's equation
Oct 31 Louis-Élisabeth de La Vergne de Tressan a French soldier, physician, scientist, medievalist and writer, best known for his adaptations of "romans chevaleresques" of the Middle Ages, which contributed to the rise of the Troubadour style in the French arts.
Nov 1 Carl Linnaeus the Younger a Swedish naturalist. He is known as Linnaeus filius to distinguish him from his famous father, the systematist Carl Linnaeus
Nov 3 Charles Collé a French dramatist and songwriter.
Nov 19 Jean-Baptiste Perronneau a French painter who specialized in portraits executed in pastels.
Nov 20 Karl Friedrich Abt an early German actor.
Dec 11 Raghunathrao Peshwa of the Maratha Empire from 1773 to 1774. He was instrumental in the downfall of the Peshwa clan
Dec 13 Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin Swedish astronomer and demographer.
Dec 15 Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi the first ruler of Oman of the Al Said dynasty. He came to power during a period when Oman was divided by civil war, and the Persians had occupied large parts of the country. During his long rule as Imam the country prospered and regained its leading position in the Persian Gulf
Dec 16 Johann Adolph Hasse an 18th-century German composer, singer and teacher of music. Immensely popular in his time, Hasse was best known for his prolific operatic output, though he also composed a considerable quantity of sacred music. Married to soprano Faustina Bordoni and a great friend of librettist Pietro Metastasio, whose libretti he frequently set, Hasse was a pivotal figure in the development of opera seria and 18th-century music
Dec 16 Sir William James 1st Baronet a Welsh-born British navy commander, known for his successful campaigns against Indian native navies.
Dec 16 Arima Yoriyuki a Japanese mathematician of the Edo period. He was the lord of Kurume Domain and approximated the value of and its square,. In 1766, he found the following rational approximation of pi, correct to 29 digits:
Dec 20 Antonio Soler a Spanish composer whose works span the late Baroque and early Classical music eras. He is best known for his keyboard sonatas, an important contribution to the harpsichord, fortepiano and organ repertoire
Dec 31 Tadeusz Franciszek Ogiński a szlachcic from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.