Died in 1784

Jan 17 Yosa Buson a Japanese poet and painter of the Edo period. Along with Matsuo Bashō and Kobayashi Issa, Buson is considered among the greatest poets of the Edo Period. Buson was born in the village of Kema in Settsu Province city. His original family name was Taniguchi
Feb 4 Princess Friederike Luise of Prussia a daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover and Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Feb 27 Count of St. Germain a European courtier, with an interest in science and the arts. He achieved prominence in European high society of the mid-1700s. Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel considered him to be "one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived". Germain used a variety of names and titles, an accepted practice amongst royals and nobles at the time. These include the Marquis de Montferrat, Comte Bellamarre, Chevalier Schoening, Count Weldon, Comte Soltikoff, Graf Tzarogy and Prinz Ragoczy. In order to deflect inquiries as to his origins, he would invent fantasies, such as that he was 500 years old, leading Voltaire to sarcastically dub him "The Wonderman"
Apr 23 Solomon I of Imereti King of Imereti from 1752 to 1766 and again from 1768 until his death in 1784.
Apr 26 Nano Nagle a pioneer of Catholic education in Ireland. She was declared venerable in the Roman Catholic Church on 31 October 2013 by Pope Francis
Apr 29 Agustín de Jáuregui a Spanish politician and soldier who served as governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru.
May 10 Antoine Court de Gébelin a former Protestant pastor, born at Nîmes, who initiated the interpretation of the Tarot as an arcane repository of timeless esoteric wisdom in 1781.
May 12 Abraham Trembley a Swiss naturalist. He is best known for being the first to study freshwater polyps or hydra and for being among the first to develop experimental zoology. His mastery of experimental method has led some historians of science to credit him as the "father of biology"
May 25 Michał Hieronim Krasiński a Polish noble, cześnik of Stężyca, podkomorzy of Różan, starost of Opiniogóra, deputy to many Sejms, one of the leaders of Bar Confederation.
Jun 6 Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol a Dutch nobleman who played a prominent role in the formation of the Batavian Republic and the revolutionary events that preceded its formation. As a member of the Patriots and inspired by the American Revolution, he wrote the noted pamphlet "To the People of the Netherlands" , in which reclaimed a more liberal society and the end of the Stadtholder regime, which had been marked by corruption and nepotism. He was also an ardent supporter in the legal recognition of the recently created United States of America
Jun 13 Henry Middleton a plantation owner and public official from South Carolina. A member of the colonial legislature, during the American Revolution he attended the Continental Congress and served as that body's presiding officer for a few days in 1774. He left Congress before it declared independence. Back in South Carolina, he served as president of the provincial congress and senator in the newly created state government. After his capture by the British in 1780, he accepted defeat and returned to the status of a British subject until the end of the war
Jun 14 Andrzej Mokronowski a notable member of the Polish szlachta, a politician and general of the Polish Army.
Jun 26 Caesar Rodney an American lawyer and politician from Jones Neck in Dover Hundred, Kent County, Delaware, east of Dover. He was an officer of the Delaware militia during the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, a Continental Congressman from Delaware, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and President of Delaware during most of the American Revolution
Jul 1 Wilhelm Friedemann Bach a German composer and performer. Despite his acknowledged genius as an organist, improviser and composer, his income and employment were unstable and he died in poverty
Jul 8 Torbern Bergman a Swedish chemist and mineralogist noted for his 1775 Dissertation on Elective Attractions, containing the largest chemical affinity tables ever published. Bergman was the first chemist to use the A, B, C, etc., system of notation for chemical species
Jul 31 Denis Diderot a French philosopher, art critic and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Aug 3 Giovanni Battista Martini O.F.M. Conv. , also known as Padre Martini, or Giambattista Martini, was an Italian Conventual Franciscan friar, who was a leading musician and composer of the period
Aug 10 Allan Ramsay (artist) a prominent Scottish portrait-painter.
Aug 14 Nathaniel Hone the Elder an Irish-born portrait and miniature painter, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768.
Aug 28 Junípero Serra a Spanish Franciscan friar who founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, which at the time were in Alta California of the Las Californias Province in New Spain. He began in San Diego on July 16, 1769, and established his headquarters near Monterey, California, at Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo
Sep 1 Jean-François Séguier a French astronomer and botanist from Nîmes.
Sep 4 César-François Cassini de Thury a French astronomer and cartographer.
Sep 8 Ann Lee the leader of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, or Shakers.
Oct 5 Antonín Kammel a composer and violinist. His best-known composition is String Quartet 2
Nov 1 Jean-Jacques Lefranc Marquis de Pompignan a French man of letters and erudition, who published a considerable output of theatrical work, poems, literary criticism, and polemics; treatises on archeology, nature, travel and many other subjects; and a wide selection of highly regarded translations of the classics and other works from several European languages including English.
Nov 6 Anine Frølich a Danish ballerina, one of the first professional native ballet dancers in Denmark and a prima donna within the Danish ballet in her days. Chronologically, she can be seen as the first Danish ballerina, and the first native star within the Royal Danish Ballet
Nov 22 Paolo Frisi an Italian mathematician and astronomer.
Dec 5 Phillis Wheatley both the second published African-American poet and first published African-American woman. Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven and transported to North America. She was purchased by the Wheatley family of Boston, who taught her to read and write, and encouraged her poetry when they saw her talent
Dec 11 Anders Johan Lexell known as Andrei Ivanovich Leksel.
Dec 13 Samuel Johnson an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Johnson was a devout Anglican and committed Tory, and has been described as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is also the subject of "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature": James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson
Dec 15 Nathanael Matthaeus von Wolf a German botanist, physician, and astronomer.
Dec 26 Seth Warner a Revolutionary War officer from Vermont who rose to rank of Continental colonel and was often given the duties of a brigade commander. He is best known for his leadership in the capture of Fort Crown Point, the Battle of Longueuil, the siege of Quebec, the retreat from Canada, and the battles of Hubbardton and Bennington
Dec 26 Otto Friedrich Müller a Danish naturalist.