Died in 1785

Jan 3 Baldassare Galuppi an Italian composer, born on the island of Burano in the Venetian Republic. He belonged to a generation of composers, including Christoph Willibald Glück, Domenico Scarlatti, and CPE Bach, whose works comprised the transition from Baroque to Classical-era music. He achieved international success, spending periods of his career in Vienna, London and Saint Petersburg, but his main base remained Venice, where he held a succession of leading appointments
Jan 19 Jonathan Toup an English philologist, classical scholar and critic.
Jan 23 Matthew Stewart (mathematician) a Scottish mathematician and minister of religion.
Feb 22 Peter the Wild Boy a mentally handicapped boy from Hanover in northern Germany who was found in 1725 living wild in the woods near Hamelin , the town of Pied Piper legend. The boy, of unknown parentage, had been living an entirely feral existence for an unknown length of time, surviving by eating forest flora; he walked on all fours, exhibited uncivilized behaviour and could not be taught to speak a language. He is now believed to have suffered from the very rare genetic disorder Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome
Feb 24 Carlo Buonaparte a Corsican lawyer and politician who briefly served as a personal assistant of the revolutionary leader Pasquale Paoli and eventually rose to become Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI. After his death, his son Napoleon became Emperor of the French, and several of his other children received royal titles from their brother
Feb 26 Barbara Erni a Liechtenstein woman known for stealing from inns throughout western Europe using a confidence trick. Known in Liechtenstein legend as Golden Boos, Erni was the last person to be executed by Liechtenstein
Mar 14 Giovanni Battista Locatelli an Italian opera director, impresario and owner of a private opera company.
Mar 31 Antoni Tyzenhaus a noble from the Tyzenhaus family, son of Benedykt Tyzenhaus. As a personal friend of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Tyzenhaus became Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and administrator of royal estates. He began to implement various agricultural reforms and pioneered industrialization in an effort to increase productivity and economic power of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At first he was successful and managed to gain considerable political influence; he was considered to be the second man after the King. However, the efforts were based on the old system of serfdom and failed. Eventually, amidst increasing political rivalry with other nobles and mounting debts, Tyzenhaus was accused of fraud and removed from public offices in 1780
Apr 2 Gabriel Bonnot de Mably a French philosopher and writer. For a short time he served in the diplomatic corps
Apr 13 Michel-François Dandré-Bardon a French history painter and etcher.
Apr 14 William Whitehead (poet) an English poet and playwright. He became Poet Laureate in 1757 after Thomas Gray declined the position
Apr 21 Countess Charlotte of Dohna-Leistenau a German noble woman.
Apr 21 Frederick II Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1756 until his death.
May 8 Étienne François duc de Choiseul a French military officer, diplomat and statesman. Between 1758 and 1761, and 1766 and 1770, he was Foreign Minister of France and had a strong influence on France's global strategy throughout the period. He is closely associated with France's defeat in the Seven Years War and subsequent efforts to rebuild French prestige
May 8 Pietro Longhi a Venetian painter of contemporary genre scenes of life.
May 11 Torii Kiyomitsu a painter and printmaker of the Torii school of Japanese ukiyo-e art; the son of Torii Kiyonobu II or Torii Kiyomasu II, he was the third head of the school, and was originally called Kamejirō before taking the gō Kiyomitsu. Dividing his work between actor prints and bijinga , he primarily used the benizuri-e technique prolific at the time, which involved using one or two colors of ink on the woodblocks rather than hand-coloring; full-color prints would be introduced later in Kiyomitsu's career, in 1765
May 15 Karel Blažej Kopřiva a Czech organist and composer from a family of musicians.
Jun 2 Jean Paul de Gua de Malves a French mathematician who published in 1740 a work on analytical geometry in which he applied it, without the aid of differential calculus, to find the tangents, asymptotes, and various singular points of an algebraic curve.
Jun 2 Gottfried August Homilius a German composer, cantor and organist. He is considered one of the most important church composers of the generation following Bach's, and was the main representative of the empfindsamer style
Jun 15 Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier a French chemistry and physics teacher, and one of the first pioneers of aviation. He and the Marquis d'Arlandes made the first manned free balloon flight on 21 November 1783, in a Montgolfier balloon. He later died when his balloon crashed near Wimereux in the Pas-de-Calais during an attempt to fly across the English Channel. He and his companion, Pierre Romain, became the first known fatalities in an air crash
Jun 26 Johann Gerhard König a Baltic German botanist and physician. He was born near Kreutzburg in Polish Livonia, which is now Krustpils in Latvia. He was a private pupil of Carolus Linnaeus in 1757, and lived in Denmark from 1759 to 1767. From 1773 to 1785, he worked as a naturalist for the Nawab of Arcot in India. He was in Tharangambadi with the Danish trade mission from 1773 to 1785
Jun 30 James Oglethorpe a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in debtors' prisons, in the New World
Jul 1 Ishikawa Toyonobu a Japanese ukiyo-e print artist. He is sometimes said to have been the same person as Nishimura Shigenobu, a contemporary ukiyo-e artist and student of Nishimura Shigenaga about whom very little is known
Jul 6 Frederick August I Duke of Oldenburg the son of Christian August, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife Margravine Albertine Friederike of Baden-Durlach.
Jul 7 Stanislaus Czerniewicz a Lithuanian-Polish Jesuit priest. Rector of the Jesuit college of Polotsk when the Society of Jesus was suppressed he was elected vicar general for the Jesuits in Russia in 1782
Jul 12 Louis-René de Caradeuc de La Chalotais primarily remembered for his role on the so-called "Brittany affair", in which the Breton parliament resisted the authority of the French monarchy. The affair has been seen as a precursor of the French Revolution
Jul 13 Stephen Hopkins (politician) a governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, a Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. From a prominent Rhode Island family, Hopkins was a grandson of William Hopkins who served the colony for 40 years as Deputy, Assistant, Speaker of the House of Deputies, and Major. His great grandfather, Thomas Hopkins, was an original settler of Providence, sailing from England in 1635 with his first cousin, Benedict Arnold, who became the first governor of the Rhode Island colony under the Royal Charter of 1663
Aug 17 Jonathan Trumbull one of the few Americans who served as governor in both a pre-Revolutionary colony and a post-Revolutionary state. He was the only colonial governor at the start of the Revolution to take up the rebel cause
Aug 20 Jean-Baptiste Pigalle a French sculptor.
Aug 26 George Germain 1st Viscount Sackville a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord North's cabinet during the American War of Independence.
Aug 31 Pietro Chiari an Italian playwright, novelist and librettist.
Sep 17 Antoine Léonard Thomas a French poet and literary critic, best known in his time for his great eloquence. He was born in Clermont-Ferrand and died, aged 52, in Oullins
Sep 19 Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain an Infanta of Spain and the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. She was the wife of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia whom she married in 1750. She was the mother of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia
Sep 30 Johann Jakob Moser a German jurist, publicist and researcher, whose work earned him the title "The Father of German Constitutional Law" and whose political commitment to the principles of Liberalism caused him to lose academic positions and spend years as a political prisoner.
Oct 31 Frederick II Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1760 to 1785. He ruled as an enlightened despot, and raised money by renting soldiers to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward international diplomacy
Nov 13 Joaquín Ibarra a Spanish printer who was known for several important technical developments on the work of the press, books and typography. His work was extremely anticipated
Nov 14 Duke George Augustus of Mecklenburg a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and a German sailor and soldier.
Nov 16 Johan Gottschalk Wallerius a Swedish chemist and mineralogist.
Nov 18 Louis Philippe I Duke of Orléans a French prince, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, the dynasty then ruling France. The First Prince of the Blood after 1752, he was the most senior male at the French court after the immediate royal family. He was the father of Philippe Égalité. He greatly augmented the already huge wealth of the House of Orléans
Nov 19 Bernard de Bury a French musician and court composer of the late Baroque era.
Nov 24 Duchess Frederica of Württemberg a daughter of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg and Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt.
Nov 25 Richard Glover (poet) an English poet and politician.
Nov 28 William Whipple a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire.
Dec 12 Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Dec 12 Edme-Louis Daubenton a French naturalist.
Dec 22 Jan de Witte a Polish military engineer, professional officer and architect of Dutch descent. The designer of, among others, the Dominican church in Lwów and the Carmelite monastery in Berdyczów , he was also the military commandant of the fortress at Kamieniec Podolski
Dec 28 Peter Ernst Wilde a Baltic German physician and Enlightenment era Estophile.
Dec 29 Johan Herman Wessel a Norwegian-Danish poet. Some of his satirical poems are still popular
Dec 29 Johann Heinrich Rolle a German baroque composer.