Died in 1786

Jan 4 Moses Mendelssohn indebted.
Jan 6 Pierre Poivre a French horticulturist born in Lyon; he was a missionary to China and Cochinchina, Intendant of the Islands of Mauritius and Bourbon, and wearer of the cordon of Michel. He was an uncle to renowned French naturalist Pierre Sonnerat
Jan 7 Jean-Étienne Guettard born at Étampes, near Paris.
Jan 12 Claude-Henri Watelet a rich French fermier-général who was an amateur painter, a well-respected etcher, a writer on the arts and a connoisseur of gardens. Watelet's inherited privilege of farming taxes in the Orléanais left him free to pursue his avocations, art and literature and gardens. His Essai sur les jardins, 1774, firmly founded on English ideas expressed by Thomas Whately, introduced the English landscape garden to France, as the jardin Anglois. The sociable Watelet, who was born and died in Paris, was at the center of the French art world of his time
Jan 14 Michael Arne an English composer, harpsichordist, organist, singer, and actor. He was the son of the composer Thomas Arne and the soprano Cecilia Young, a member of the famous Young family of musicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Like his father, Arne worked primarily as a composer of stage music and vocal art song, contributing little to other genres of music. He wrote several songs for London's pleasure gardens, the most famous of which is Lass with the Delicate Air. A moderately prolific composer, Arne wrote nine operas and collaborated on at least 15 others. His most successful opera, Cymon , enjoyed several revivals during his lifetime and into the early nineteenth century
Jan 14 Meshech Weare an American farmer, lawyer and revolutionary statesman from Seabrook and Hampton Falls, New Hampshire. He served as the first President of New Hampshire from 1776 to 1785
Jan 26 Hans Joachim von Zieten a cavalry general in the Prussian Army. He served in numerous wars and battles during the reign of Frederick the Great
Feb 11 Hugh Percy 1st Duke of Northumberland an English peer, landowner, and art patron.
Feb 28 John Gwynn an English architect and civil engineer, who became one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768. He advocated greater control over planning in London, for which he produced detailed suggestions. His buildings include Magdalen Bridge and the Covered Market in Oxford, and several bridges over the River Severn
Mar 6 Charles Germain de Saint Aubin a French draftsman and embroidery designer to King Louis Published a classic reference on embroidery, L'Art du Brodeur in 1770. In addition to his embroidery designs, he was also known for his drawings and engravings
Mar 7 Franz Benda a Bohemian violinist and composer. He was the brother of Jiří Antonín Benda, and he worked for much of his life at the court of Frederick the Great
Mar 11 Charles Humphreys an American miller and statesman from Haverford, Pennsylvania. He is the son of Daniel Humphreys and Hannah Wynne. He served as a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776. He voted against the Declaration of Independence, since he believed it would inevitably escalate the Revolutionary War and that conflicted with his Quaker beliefs. He withdrew from the Congress soon afterwards
Mar 21 Johann Gottlieb Preller a German cantor, composer, and land surveyor.
Apr 10 John Byron Vice Admiral The Hon. John Byron, RN was a Royal Navy officer. He was known as Foul-weather Jack because of his frequent encounters with bad weather at sea
Apr 20 John Goodricke an English amateur astronomer. He is best known for his observations of the variable star Algol in 1782
May 2 Petronella Johanna de Timmerman a Dutch poet and scientist.
May 4 Johann Kaspar Füssli a Swiss painter, entomologist and publisher.
May 19 John Stanley (composer) an English composer and organist.
May 21 Carl Wilhelm Scheele a Swedish Pomeranian pharmaceutical chemist. Isaac Asimov called him "hard-luck Scheele" because he made a number of chemical discoveries before others who are generally given the credit. For example, Scheele discovered oxygen , and identified molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine before Humphry Davy, among others. Scheele discovered organic acids tartaric, oxalic, uric, lactic, and citric, as well as hydrofluoric, hydrocyanic, and arsenic acids. He preferred speaking German to Swedish his whole life, and German was commonly spoken among Swedish pharmacists
May 23 Maurice Benyovszky a Slovak-Hungarian count with Hungarian, Polish and Slovak ancestry. He was an explorer, writer, ruler and self declared King of eastern Madagascar, and military officer in the French, Polish, Austrian and American armies. In his memoirs he described himself on several occasions as a "Hungarian and Polish nobleman"
May 25 Peter III of Portugal became King of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves by the accession of his wife and niece Queen Maria I in 1777, and co-reigned alongside her until his death.
Jun 16 Stanisław Ferdynand Rzewuski a Polish noble. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on 1760
Jun 19 Nathanael Greene a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia. When the war began, Greene was a militia private, the lowest rank possible; he emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer. Many places in the United States are named for him. Greene suffered financial difficulties in the post-war years and died suddenly of sunstroke in 1786
Jun 22 Claude Arnulphy a French painter, chiefly of portraits, based at Aix-en-Provence in the south of France.
Jul 5 Michèl Yost a famous French clarinetist and cofounder of the French clarinet school. He was a brilliant instrumentalist and even known beyond the boundaries of France
Aug 15 Thomas Tyrwhitt an English classical scholar and critic.
Aug 17 Frederick the Great II reigned over the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786. The third Hohenzollern king, Frederick is best known for his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the Arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. He became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people
Sep 5 Jonas Hanway born at Portsmouth, on the south coast of England.
Sep 17 Tokugawa Ieharu the tenth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office from 1760 to 1786.
Sep 18 Giovanni Battista Guadagnini an Italian luthier, regarded as one of the finest craftsmen of string instruments in history. He is widely considered the third greatest maker after Antonio Stradivari and Giuseppe Guarneri "Del Gesu"
Sep 18 Hieronim Wincenty Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded in 1780.
Oct 2 Augustus Keppel 1st Viscount Keppel an officer of the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War and the War of American Independence. During the final years of the latter conflict he served as First Lord of the Admiralty
Oct 5 Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch a German physician and botanist known for pioneer investigations of plant sexuality and reproduction.
Oct 6 Antonio Sacchini an Italian composer, most famous for his operas.
Oct 17 Johann Ludwig Aberli a Swiss painter and etcher.
Oct 30 William Duesbury an important enameller and British entrepreneur, founder of the Royal Crown Derby and owner of porcelain factories at Bow, Chelsea, Derby and Longton Hall.
Oct 31 Princess Amelia of Great Britain the second daughter of George II of Great Britain.
Nov 10 John Hope (botanist) a Scottish physician and botanist. He is best known as an early supporter of Carl Linnaeus's system of classification, largely because he published very little of the research that might have made him a name in plant physiology
Nov 25 Nathanael Gottfried Leske a German natural scientist and geologist.
Dec 26 Gasparo Gozzi an Venetian critic and dramatist.