Died in 1790

Jan 5 Jacob Christian Schäffer a German dean, professor, botanist, mycologist, entomologist, ornithologist and inventor.
Jan 13 Luc Urbain de Bouëxic comte de Guichen a French admiral who commanded the French fleets that fought the British at the First Battle of Ushant and the Battle of Martinique during the American War of Independence.
Jan 15 John Landen an English mathematician.
Jan 20 John Howard (prison reformer) a philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.
Jan 25 Giusto Fernando Tenducci a soprano opera singer and composer, who passed his career partly in Italy but chiefly in Britain.
Jan 31 Thomas Lewis (Virginia) an Irish-American surveyor, lawyer, and a pioneer of early Virginia. He was a signatory to the Fairfax Resolves preceding the American War for Independence, and after the conflict, contributed to the settlement of western Virginia in an area that would one day become part of West Virginia
Feb 5 William Cullen a Scottish physician, chemist and agriculturalist, and one of the most important professors at the Edinburgh Medical School, during its heyday as the leading center of medical education in the English-speaking world.
Feb 10 Jan Jakub Zamoyski a Polish nobleman.
Feb 14 Capel Bond an English organist and composer.
Feb 17 Cristfried Ganander a Finnish compiler of folk culture, a priest and an 18th-century lexicographer. Ganander's greatest achievement was the compilation of the first fully extensive Finnish-language dictionary which was, however, unpublished. He was also a collector of folk culture well before Elias Lönnrot. His most well-known published work is Mythologia Fennica in 1789, a reference book of folk religion. He also published some poetry and worked as a teacher
Feb 18 Duchess Elisabeth of Württemberg by birth a Duchess of Württemberg and by marriage an Archduchess of Austria.
Feb 19 Jean-Baptiste Krumpholz a Czech composer and harpist.
Feb 19 Thomas de Mahy marquis de Favras a French aristocrat and supporter of the House of Bourbon during the French Revolution.
Feb 20 Erik Pauelsen a Danish painter. He is most notable for his landscapes and was also a popular portraitist. However, he did not experience the same level of success as Jens Juel and Nicolai Abildgaard, his contemporaries, and in 1790 he committed suicide
Feb 20 Joseph II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, and was the brother of Marie Antoinette. He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in an ultimate failure to fully implement his programmes. He has been ranked, with Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia, as one of the three great Enlightenment monarchs. His policies are now known as Josephinism. He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold
Feb 26 Sir Joshua Rowley 1st Baronet the fourth son of Admiral Sir William Rowley. Sir Joshua was from an ancient English family, originating in Staffordshire and was born on 1 May 1734 in Dublin Rowley served with distinction in a number of battles throughout his career and was highly praised by his contemporaries. Unfortunately whilst his career was often active he did not have the opportunity to command any significant engagements and always followed rather than led. His achievements have therefore been eclipsed by his contemporaries such as Keppel, Hawke, Howe and Rodney. Rowley however remains one of the stalwart commanders of the wooden walls that kept Britain safe for so long
Mar 12 András Hadik a Hungarian nobleman and Field Marshal of the Habsburg Army. He was Governor of Galicia and Lodomeria from January 1774 to June 1774, and the father of Karl Joseph Hadik von Futak. He is famous for capturing the Prussian capital Berlin during the Seven Years' War
Apr 2 Robert H. Harrison an American jurist.
Apr 3 Ephraim Kuh a German poet.
Apr 6 Louis IX Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg
Apr 9 Mohammed ben Abdallah Sultan of Morocco from 1757 to 1790 under the Alaouite dynasty. He was the governor of Marrakech around 1750. He was also sultan briefly during 1748
Apr 17 Benjamin Franklin one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and in many ways was "the First American". A renowned polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and a university
Apr 19 Grigory Spiridov a leading Russian naval commander and admiral.
Apr 30 Samuel Heinicke born in Nautschutz, Germany.
May 2 Philipp Matthäus Hahn a German pastor and inventor.
May 2 Victor Amadeus of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Bernburg branch through the sub-branch of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym and a Russian General under the service of Empress Catherine II the Great.
May 4 Matthew Tilghman an American planter and Revolutionary leader from Maryland, who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776.
May 6 Jacques Antoine Hippolyte Comte de Guibert a French general and military writer. Born at Montauban, he accompanied his father in wars before he became a general himself. He published in 1770 an essay on tactics in London, which was very influential in his time
May 9 William Clingan a delegate in the Continental Congress for Pennsylvania from 1777 to 1779. He signed the Articles of Confederation
May 16 Philip Yorke 2nd Earl of Hardwicke an English politician.
May 21 Thomas Warton an English literary historian, critic, and poet. From 1785 to 1790 he was the Poet Laureate of England. He is sometimes called Thomas Warton the younger to distinguish him from his father Thomas Warton the elder. His most famous poem remains The Pleasures of Melancholy, a representative work of the Graveyard poets
May 23 Władysław Gurowski a noble of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Chamberlain of Polish king Augustus III of Poland from 1758; Great Crown Clerk from 1764; Court Lithuanian Marshal from 1768; Great Lithuanian Marshal from 1781
May 29 Israel Putnam an American army general officer and Freemason, popularly known as "Old Put", who fought with distinction at the Battle of Bunker Hill during the American Revolutionary War. His reckless courage and fighting spirit were known far beyond Connecticut's borders through the circulation of folk legends celebrating his exploits
Jul 3 Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle a French mineralogist, considered one of the creators of modern crystallography.
Jul 7 François Hemsterhuis a Dutch writer on aesthetics and moral philosophy.
Jul 14 Ernst Gideon von Laudon an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of the Kingdom of Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković
Jul 17 Adam Smith a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment, Smith is best known for two classic works: The Theory of Moral Sentiments , and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. The latter, usually abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. Smith is cited as the "father of modern economics" and is still among the most influential thinkers in the field of economics today
Jul 25 Johann Bernhard Basedow a German educational reformer, teacher and writer. He founded the Philanthropinum, a short-lived but influential progressive school in Dessau, and was the author of "Elementarwerk", a popular illustrated textbook for children
Jul 25 William Livingston a signer of the United States Constitution.
Aug 9 James Trevenen an officer in the Royal Navy and the Imperial Russian Navy.
Aug 29 Louis Günther II Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt the ruling prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt from 1767 until his death.
Sep 2 Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim a German historian and theologian. He is remembered as Febronius, the pseudonym under which he wrote his 1763 treatise On the State of the Church and the Legitimate Power of the Roman Pontiff which offered Europe the "foremost formulation of the arguments against papal absolutism in Germany"
Sep 28 Nikolaus I Prince Esterházy a Hungarian prince, a member of the famous Esterházy family. His building of palaces, extravagant clothing, and taste for opera and other grand musical productions led to his being given the title "the Magnificent". He is remembered as the principal employer of the composer Joseph Haydn
Oct 11 Marmaduke Tunstall an English ornithologist and collector. He was the author of Ornithologica Britannica , probably the first British work to use binomial nomenclature
Oct 14 William Hooper an American lawyer, physician, politician, and a member of the Continental Congress representing North Carolina from 1774 through 1777. Hooper was also a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, along with fellow North Carolinians Joseph Hewes and John Penn
Oct 19 Lyman Hall a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. Hall County is named after him
Nov 6 James Bowdoin an American political and intellectual leader from Boston, Massachusetts, during the American Revolution. He served in both branches of the Massachusetts General Court from the 1750s to the 1770s. Although he was initially supportive of the royal governors, he opposed British colonial policy and eventually became an influential advocate of independence. He authored a highly political report on the 1770 Boston Massacre that has been described by historian Francis Walett as one of the most influential pieces of writing that shaped public opinion in the colonies
Nov 16 Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer a politician and a Founding Father of the United States. Born long before conflicts with Great Britain emerged, he was a leader for many years in Maryland's colonial government. However, when conflict arose with Great Britain, he embraced the Patriot cause
Nov 21 Karol Stanisław "Panie Kochanku" Radziwiłł a Polish–Lithuanian szlachcic, voivod of Vilnius and starosta of Lwów. He is frequently referred to by his idiolect "Panie Kochanku" to distinguish him from his earlier namesake
Dec 12 Mikhail Shcherbatov a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. His view of human nature and social progress is kindred to Swift's pessimism. He was known as a statesman, historian, writer and philosopher, and was one of the most visible representatives of the nascent Russian conservatism during the second half of the 18th century