Born in 1791

Jan 1 Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer a German botanist and botanical historian. Born in Hanover, he lectured in Göttingen and in 1826 became a professor of botany at the University of Königsberg, as well as Director of the Botanical Garden. His botanical specialty was the Juncaceae, or family of rushes. His major work was the four-volume Geschichte der Botanik. His history covered ancient authorities such as Aristotle and Theophrastus, explored the beginnings of modern botany in the context of 15th- and 16th-century intellectual practice, and offered a wealth of biographical data on early modern botanists. Julius von Sachs pronounced him “no great botanist” but admitted that he “possessed a clever and cultivated intellect.”
Jan 1 Vasili Bebutov a Russian-Armenian general. A descendant of a Georgian-Armenian noble house of Bebutashvili/Bebutov, he was in the military since 1809. Served in the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812 and the Patriotic War of 1812. Since 1816 he was Adjutant General of the I. Retinue and served with P. Yermolov. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29 he participated in the takeover of Akhaltsikhe, from 1830 he was the governor of the Armenian Oblast. From 1844–47 he was the commander of troops against Imam Shamil. He was awarded the Order of Saint George of the second degree on December 6, 1853 for his services
Jan 15 Franz Grillparzer chiefly known for his dramas. He also wrote the oration for Ludwig van Beethoven's funeral
Jan 16 Henryk Dembiński a Polish engineer, traveler and general.
Jan 21 Padre Davide da Bergamo an Italian monk, famed for his skills as an organist and composer.
Jan 28 James Stirling (Royal Navy officer) a British naval officer and colonial administrator. His enthusiasm and persistence persuaded the British Government to establish the Swan River Colony and he became the first Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Western Australia. In 1854, when Commander-in-Chief, East Indies and China Station, Stirling on his own initiative signed Britain's first Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty. Throughout his career Stirling showed considerable diplomatic skill and was selected for a number of sensitive missions. Paradoxically, this was not reflected in his personal dealings with officialdom and his hopes for preferment received many rebuffs
Jan 28 Ferdinand Hérold a French operatic composer of Alsatian descent who also wrote many pieces for the piano, orchestra, and the ballet. He is best known today for the ballet La fille mal gardée and the overture to the opera Zampa
Feb 2 William Elford Leach an English zoologist and marine biologist.
Feb 9 Jean Cruveilhier a French anatomist and pathologist.
Feb 10 Francesco Hayez an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his grand historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits.
Feb 11 Alexandros Mavrokordatos a Greek statesman and member of the Mavrocordatos family of Phanariotes.
Feb 11 Louis Visconti an Italian-born French architect and designer.
Feb 12 Peter Cooper an American industrialist, inventor, philanthropist, and candidate for President of the United States. He designed and built the first steam locomotive in the U.S., and founded the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in Manhattan, New York City
Feb 13 Sylvester Shchedrin a Russian landscape painter.
Feb 14 Hugh Cuming an English collector who was interested in natural history, particularly in conchology and botany. He has been described as the "Prince of Collectors"
Feb 19 Concepción Argüello an Alta Californian noted for her romance with Nikolai Rezanov, a Russian promoter of the colonization of Alaska and California.
Feb 21 Carl Czerny an Austrian composer, teacher, and pianist of Czech origin whose vast musical production amounted to over a thousand works. His books of studies for the piano are still widely used in piano teaching
Feb 24 Ignaz Czapka a mayor of Vienna.
Feb 24 Sveinbjörn Egilsson an Icelandic theologian, classicist, teacher, translator and poet. He is best known for the work he did during his time as the rector of The Learned School of Reykjavík , particularly his translations of Homer's Odyssey and Iliad into Icelandic
Mar 6 John MacHale the Irish Roman Catholic Archbishop of Tuam, and Irish Nationalist.
Mar 8 Kazimierz Brodziński an important Polish Romantic poet.
Mar 9 Nicolas Levasseur a French bass, particularly associated with Rossini roles.
Mar 10 Ángel de Saavedra 3rd Duke of Rivas a Spanish poet, dramatist and politician born in Devis. He is best known for his play Don Álvaro; o, La fuerza del sino , the first romantic success in the fatty theater
Mar 15 Charles Knight (publisher) an English publisher, editor and author.
Mar 27 Reuben Uther a noted Australian merchant and manufacturer. Born in England, Uther began his career in seal skins before emigrating to Sydney in 1807 where he founded a hat making industry, a region of industry that he subsequently monopolised. He was a signatory to the petition to Major George Johnston calling for the deposing of the Governor of New South Wales, William Bligh, having only lived in the country for one year
Apr 3 Anne Lister a well-off Yorkshire landowner, diarist, mountaineer and traveller. Throughout her life she kept diaries which chronicled the details of her daily life, including her lesbian relationships, her financial concerns, her industrial activities and her work improving Shibden Hall. Her diaries contain more than 4,000,000 words and about a sixth of them—those concerning the intimate details of her romantic and sexual relationships—were written in code. The code, derived from a combination of algebra and Ancient Greek, was deciphered in the 1930s. Lister is often called "the first modern lesbian" for her clear self-knowledge and openly lesbian lifestyle. Called "Fred" by her lover and "Gentleman Jack" by Halifax residents, she suffered from harassment for her sexuality, and recognised her similarity to the Ladies of Llangollen, whom she visited
Apr 12 Francis Preston Blair an American journalist and politician.
Apr 12 Provo Wallis a Royal Navy officer and naval war hero. He was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and was 100 years old when he died
Apr 17 Ottaviano-Fabrizio Mossotti an Italian physicist exiled from Italy for his liberal ideas. He later taught astronomy and physics at the University of Buenos Aires. His name is associated with a type of multiple-element lens correcting spherical aberration and coma, but not chromatic aberration. The Clausius-Mossotti formula is partly named after him. Mossotti was Chair of Experimental Physics in Buenos Aires and taught numerous Argentinian physicians his views on dielectrics, thereby becoming influential on the Argentine-German neurobiological tradition as regards electricity inside brain tissue, and later on this tradition's models of stationary waves in the interference of neural activity for short-term memory. He returned to Italy, participated in military actions after his age of sixty, and was appointed as Senator. There Mossotti also was influential on Hendrik Lorentz's views on fundamental forces, as well as more than five hundred mathematician students
Apr 23 James Buchanan the 15th President of the United States , serving immediately prior to the American Civil War. He is, to date, the only president from Pennsylvania and the only president to remain a lifelong bachelor
Apr 27 Samuel Morse an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code, and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy
Apr 29 Heinrich Wendland a botanist who authored a number of Acacia species.
May 3 Henryk Rzewuski a Polish Romantic-era journalist and novelist.
May 11 Jan Václav Voříšek a Bohemian composer, pianist and organist.
May 17 Joanna Grudzińska a Polish noble, a Princess of Łowicz and the second wife of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia, the de facto viceroy of the Kingdom of Poland. This marriage cost Constantine the crown of Russia
May 25 Minh Mạng the second emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841. He was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Cảnh, had died in 1801. He was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam and his rigid Confucian orthodoxy
Jun 10 Václav Hanka a Czech philologist.
Jun 17 Roberto Cofresí a pirate from Puerto Rico. He became interested in sailing at a young age, when he acquired his first ship and became acquainted with the Mona Passage. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries there were political and economic difficulties in Puerto Rico, which at the time was a colony of the Spanish Empire. Upon reaching adulthood, Roberto Cofresí decided to abandon a merchant's life and became a pirate. Commanding a crew out of Isla de Mona they navigated between Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Saint Thomas, leading several assaults against cargo and merchant vessels. Historians have speculated that Cofresí may have served as a privateer prior to this, likely aboard the Escipión, a ship owned by one of his cousins named José María Ramírez de Arellano. He established a reputation for being difficult to capture, successfully avoiding the Spanish Armed Forces and United States Navy, and also suddenly escaping from a Dominican jail. This was accomplished with the help of civil informants and associates - a web so vast that it took 14 years after his death to fully dismantle it
Jun 18 Denison Olmsted born at East Hartford, Connecticut. Professor Olmsted is credited with giving birth to meteor science after the 1833 Leonid meteor shower over North America spurred him to study this phenomenon
Jun 21 Robert Napier (engineer) often called "The Father of Clyde Shipbuilding.".
Jun 30 Félix Savart primarily known for the Biot–Savart law of electromagnetism, which he discovered together with his colleague Jean-Baptiste Biot. His main interest was in acoustics and the study of vibrating bodies. A particular interest in the violin led him to create an experimental trapezoidal model. He gave his name to the savart, a unit of measurement for musical intervals, and to Savart's wheel—a device he used while investigating the range of human hearing
Jul 5 Samuel Bailey a British philosopher and writer. He was called the "Bentham of Hallamshire"
Jul 13 Allan Cunningham (botanist) an English botanist and explorer, primarily known for his travels in Australia to collect plants.
Jul 19 Odilon Barrot a French politician who was briefly head of the council of ministers under Prince Louis Napoleon in 1848–49.
Jul 26 Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart the youngest child of six born to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and his wife Constanze. He was the younger of his parents' two surviving children. He was a composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher from the late classical period whose musical style was of an early Romanticism, heavily influenced by his father's mature style
Aug 3 Charles Gordon-Lennox 5th Duke of Richmond a British soldier, politician and a prominent Conservative.
Aug 7 Adolf Ivar Arwidsson a Finnish political journalist, writer and historian. His writing is critical of Finland's status at the time as a Grand Duchy under the Russian Tsars. His writing activity cost him his job as a lecturer at The Royal Academy of Turku and he had to emigrate to Sweden, where he continued his political activity. The Finnish national movement considered Arwidsson the mastermind of an independent Finland
Aug 24 Therese Grünbaum an Austrian soprano and opera singer.
Sep 1 Lydia Sigourney a popular American poet during the early and mid 19th century. She was commonly known as the "Sweet Singer of Hartford". Most of her works were published with just her married name Mrs. Sigourney
Sep 4 Robert Knox a Scottish anatomist, zoologist, ethnologist and doctor. He was the most popular lecturer in anatomy in Britain, where he introduced the theory of transcendental anatomy, but is now best known for his involvement in the Burke and Hare murders. Difficulty in obtaining cadavers for dissection after the passage of the Anatomy Act and disagreements with professional colleagues ruined his career, and a move to London did not improve matters. His later pessimistic view of humanity contrasted sharply with his youthful attachment to the ideas of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire