Died in 1792

Jan 10 Józef Sapieha a Polish nobleman, Great Krajczy of Lithuania, Regimentarz of the Bar Confederation of Lithuania, Marshal of the powiat Wołkowysk during the Bar Confederation.
Feb 2 Elizaveta Vorontsova a mistress of Emperor Peter III of Russia. During their affair, Peter was rumored to have intentions of divorcing his wife Catherine to marry Vorontsova
Feb 10 Andrzej Zamoyski a Polish noble. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded on 3 August 1758 in Warsaw
Feb 18 George Browne (soldier) an Irish soldier of fortune who became full general in the Russian service.
Feb 23 Joshua Reynolds an influential eighteenth-century English painter, specialising in portraits. He promoted the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was a founder and first president of the Royal Academy, and was knighted by George III in 1769
Feb 29 Johann Andreas Stein an outstanding German maker of keyboard instruments, a central figure in the history of the piano. He was primarily responsible for the design of the so-called "Viennese" fortepiano, for which the piano music of Haydn, Mozart, and the early Beethoven was written
Mar 1 Leopold II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, thus the brother of Marie Antoinette. Leopold was a moderate proponent of enlightened absolutism
Mar 3 Robert Adam a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. He was the son of William Adam , the country's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. With his older brother John, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance, after William's death
Mar 10 John Stuart 3rd Earl of Bute a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain under George III, and was arguably the last important favourite in British politics. He was the first Prime Minister from Scotland following the Acts of Union in 1707
Mar 29 Gustav III of Sweden King of Sweden from 1771 until his death.
Apr 3 George Pocock a British officer of the Royal Navy.
Apr 4 James Sykes (Continental Congress) an American lawyer and politician from Dover, in Kent County, Delaware. He served in the Delaware General Assembly and was a Continental Congressman from Delaware
Apr 14 Maximilian Hell a Hungarian astronomer and an ordained Jesuit priest from the Kingdom of Hungary.
Apr 21 Tiradentes a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as the Inconfidência Mineira whose aim was full independence from the Portuguese colonial power and to create a Brazilian republic. When the plan was discovered, Tiradentes was arrested, tried and publicly hanged. Since the 19th century he has been considered a national hero of Brazil and patron of the Military Police
Apr 23 Karl Friedrich Bahrdt considered by some as one of the most immoral characters in German learning.
Apr 27 Jacob Johan Anckarström a Swedish military officer who was convicted and executed for regicide. He was the son of Jacob Johan Anckarström the Elder. He served as a captain in King Gustav III's regiment between 1778 and 1783. During travels to Gotland, he was accused of slandering the king and fled to Stockholm, where he spent the winter, but was subsequently arrested, brought back and tried in Gotland. Although he was acquitted due to lack of evidence, he later maintained in his confession that this incident sparked his fire of hatred towards the king, fuelled by the contemporary revolutionary movement in Europe
Apr 30 John Montagu 4th Earl of Sandwich a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather, Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich, as the Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten. During his life he held various military and political offices, including Postmaster General, First Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary of State for the Northern Department, but is perhaps best known for the claim that he was the eponymous inventor of the sandwich
May 12 Charles Simon Favart a French dramatist.
May 15 Maria Luisa of Spain Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.
May 18 Levy Solomons a Jewish Canadian merchant and fur trader.
May 20 Antoine Louis a French surgeon and physiologist who was born in Metz.
May 24 George Brydges Rodney 1st Baron Rodney a British naval officer. He is best known for his commands in the American War of Independence, particularly his victory over the French at the Battle of the Saintes in 1782. It is often claimed that he was the commander to have pioneered the tactic of "breaking the line"
Jun 4 Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz a Baltic German writer of the Sturm und Drang movement.
Jun 16 Benjamin Tupper a soldier in the French and Indian War, and an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, achieving the rank of brevet brigadier general. Subsequently, he served as a Massachusetts legislator, and he assisted Gen. William Shepard in stopping Shays' Rebellion. Benjamin Tupper was a co-founder of the Ohio Company of Associates, and was a pioneer to the Ohio Country, involved in establishing Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent settlement in the Northwest Territory
Jun 22 Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab an Najdi Islamic scholar. Opponents of this movement coined the term "wahabi" or "wahabism", though neither Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab nor any of the movement's participants referred to themselves as such
Jun 28 Elizabeth Ann Linley the first daughter of the composer Thomas Linley and his wife Mary Johnson, and was herself the wife of the playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
Jun 30 Antonio Rosetti a classical era composer and double bass player, and was a contemporary of Haydn and Mozart. The occasional disambiguation with a supposed, but non-existent, "Antonio Rosetti born 1744 in Milan", is due to an error by Ernst Ludwig Gerber in a later edition of his Tonkünstler-Lexikon having mistaken Rosetti for an Italian in the first edition of his own Lexikon, and therefore including Rosetti twice - once as an Italian, once as a German-Czech
Jul 3 Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a German-Prussian field marshal known for his participation in the Seven Years' War. From 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army in Western Germany which successfully repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover
Jul 18 John Paul Jones a Scottish sailor and the United States' first well-known naval fighter in the American Revolutionary War. Although he made enemies among America's political elites, his actions in British waters during the Revolution earned him an international reputation which persists to this day. As such, he is sometimes referred to as the "Father of the United States Navy". He later served in the Imperial Russian Navy
Jul 21 Davit Guramishvili a Georgian poet who wrote the finest pieces of pre-Romantic Georgian literature. His poetic talents thrived far from his motherland, being forced by personal misfortunes and turmoil in Georgia to spend several years in the Russian military service until his retirement to his small Ukrainian estate at Myrhorod where he made eighty-seven years of his tragic and turbulent life into one cycle of autobiographical poetry, the Davitiani, which he sent to Georgia through a Georgian embassy returning from the Russian empire in 1787
Jul 29 René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou a French lawyer,politician and chancellor of France, whose attempts at reform signalled the failure of enlightened despotism in France. He is best known for his effort to destroy the system of parlements, which were powerful regional courts, in 1770-74. When King Louis XV died in 1774, the parlements were restored and Maupeou lost power
Aug 3 Richard Arkwright an inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution. Although the patents were eventually overturned, he is credited with inventing the spinning frame, which, following the transition to water power, was renamed the water frame. He also patented a rotary carding engine that transformed raw cotton into cotton lap
Aug 4 John Burgoyne a British army officer, politician and dramatist. He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, most notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762
Aug 5 Frederick North Lord North Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence. He also held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer
Aug 10 Stanislas Marie Adelaide comte de Clermont-Tonnerre a French military officer, and a politician during the French Revolution.
Sep 3 Princess Marie Louise of Savoy a member of a cadet branch of the House of Savoy. She was married at the age of 17 to Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre, Prince de Lamballe, the heir to the greatest fortune in France. After her marriage, which lasted a year, she went to court and became the confidante of Queen Marie Antoinette. She was killed in the massacres of September 1792 during the French Revolution
Sep 9 Charles d'Abancour a French statesman, minister to Louis XVI.
Sep 12 Ulrike Louise of Solms-Braunfels a Countess of Solms-Braunfels by birth, and by marriage a Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg. From 1751 to 1766, she was also regent of Hesse-Homburg, on behalf of her minor son from 1751 to 1766, and regent of the county land
Sep 16 Nguyễn Huệ the second emperor of the Tây Sơn Dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history
Sep 18 August Gottlieb Spangenberg a German theologian and minister, and a bishop of the Moravian Brethren. As successor of Count Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, he helped develop international missions, as well as stabilize the theology and organization of the German Moravian Church
Sep 25 Jacques Cazotte a French author.
Sep 25 Adam Gottlob Moltke a Danish courtier, statesman and diplomat, born at Riesenhof in Mecklenburg.
Oct 7 George Mason an American Patriot, statesman and a delegate from Virginia to the U.S. Constitutional Convention. Along with James Madison, he is called the "Father of the United States Bill of Rights." For these reasons he is considered one of the "Founding Fathers" of the United States
Oct 10 Constantine Phipps 2nd Baron Mulgrave an English explorer and officer in the Royal Navy. He served during the Seven Years' War and the American War of Independence, seeing action in a number of battles and engagements. Inheriting a title, he also went on to have a successful career in Parliament, and occupied a number of political offices during his later years
Oct 14 Sophie Charlotte Ackermann a German actress from Berlin.
Oct 22 Guillaume Le Gentil a French astronomer.
Oct 28 Paul Möhring a German physician, botanist and zoologist.
Oct 28 John Smeaton an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. He was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer, and often regarded as the "father of civil engineering"
Dec 8 Henry Laurens an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. A delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Laurens succeeded John Hancock as President of the Congress. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and President of the Continental Congress when the Articles were passed on November 15, 1777
Dec 12 Denis Fonvizin a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today. His main works are two satirical comedies which mock contemporary Russian gentry