Died in 1793

Jan 1 Francesco Guardi a Venetian painter of veduta, a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners, along with his brothers, of the classic Venetian school of painting
Jan 4 Bengt Lidner a Swedish poet, born in Gothenburg. His opera Medea was translated to English and played in England during his lifetime, but wasn't played in Sweden until 2004
Jan 19 Katsukawa Shunshō a Japanese painter and printmaker in the ukiyo-e style, and the leading artist of the Katsukawa school. Shunshō studied under Miyagawa Shunsui, son and student of Miyagawa Chōshun, both equally famous and talented ukiyo-e artists. Shunshō is most well known for introducing a new form of yakusha-e, prints depicting Kabuki actors. However, his bijin-ga paintings, while less famous, are said by some scholars to be "the best in the second half of the century"
Jan 20 Louis-Michel le Peletier marquis de Saint-Fargeau a French politician.
Jan 21 Louis XVI of France King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution. His father, Louis, Dauphin of France, was the son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France. As a result of the Dauphin's death in 1765, Louis succeeded his grandfather in 1774
Jan 30 Alois Friedrich von Brühl a Polish-Saxon diplomat, politician, Freemason, soldier, actor and playwright.
Feb 1 William Barrington 2nd Viscount Barrington a British politician best known for his two periods as Secretary at War during Britain's involvement in the Seven Years War and American War of Independence.
Feb 2 William Aiton a Scottish botanist.
Feb 6 Carlo Goldoni an Italian playwright and librettist from the Republic of Venice. His works include some of Italy's most famous and best-loved plays. Audiences have admired the plays of Goldoni for their ingenious mix of wit and honesty. His plays offered his contemporaries images of themselves, often dramatizing the lives, values, and conflicts of the emerging middle classes. Though he wrote in French and Italian, his plays make rich use of the Venetian language, regional vernacular, and colloquialisms. Goldoni also wrote under the pen name and title "Polisseno Fegeio, Pastor Arcade," which he claimed in his memoirs the "Arcadians of Rome" bestowed on him
Feb 15 Johan Theodor Holmskjold a Danish botanist, courtier and administrator.
Mar 2 Carl Gustaf Pilo a Swedish-born artist and painter, one of many 18th-century European artists who had to leave their own country in order to make a living. Pilo worked extensively in Denmark as a painter to the Danish Court and as professor and director at the Royal Danish Academy of Art , as well as in his native Sweden. Carl Gustaf is most famous for his masterly painting, "The Coronation of Gustaf III" commissioned by King Gustav III of Sweden
Mar 3 Frederick Augustus Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst a German prince of the House of Ascania and the last ruler of the Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Mar 4 Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon Duke of Penthièvre the son of Louis Alexandre de Bourbon and his wife Marie Victoire de Noailles. He was also a grandson of Louis XIV of France and his mistress, Madame de Montespan. From birth he was known as the Duke of Penthièvre. He also possessed the following titles: Prince of Lamballe ; Prince of Carignano; Duke of Rambouillet; Duke of Aumale ; Duke of Gisors; Duke of Châteauvillain; Duke of Arc-en-Barrois; Duke of Amboise; Count of Eu; Count of Guingamp. He was the father in law of Philippe Égalité
Mar 17 Leopold Hofmann an Austrian composer of classical music.
Mar 18 Karl Abraham Zedlitz a Prussian minister of education who was instrumental in establishing mandatory education in Prussia, which served as a model for the public education system in the United States.
Mar 20 William Murray 1st Earl of Mansfield a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law. Born to Scottish nobility, he was educated in Perth, Scotland before moving to London at the age of 13 to take up a place at Westminster School. He was accepted into Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1723, and graduated four years later. Returning to London from Oxford, he was called to the Bar by Lincoln's Inn on 23 November 1730, and quickly gained a reputation as an excellent barrister
Mar 26 John Mudge an English physician and amateur creator of telescope mirrors. He won the Copley Medal in 1777 for a paper on reflecting telescopes
Mar 29 François Clément a French historian and member of the Benedictine Congregation of Maur.
Apr 2 Colin Macfarquhar a Scottish bookseller and printer. He is best known for being one of the "Society of Gentlemen in Scotland", along with Andrew Bell, who first published the Encyclopædia Britannica. Macfarquhar also contributed heavily to the second and third edition. The dates of his birth and death remain uncertain, even to Britannica itself
Apr 13 Frederick Charles Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt a German Natural History collector, and from 1790 until his death the reigning Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
Apr 15 Ignacije Szentmartony a Croatian Jesuit priest, missionary, mathematician, astronomer and explorer.
Apr 29 Yechezkel Landau an influential authority in halakha. He is best known for the work Noda Biyhudah , by which title he is also known
Apr 29 John Michell an English clergyman and natural philosopher who provided pioneering insights in a wide range of scientific fields, including astronomy, geology, optics, and gravitation. Considered "one of the greatest unsung scientists of all time", he was the first person known to propose the existence of black holes in publication, the first to suggest that earthquakes travel in waves, the first to explain how to manufacture artificial magnets, and the first to apply statistics to the study of the cosmos, recognizing that double stars were a product of mutual gravitation. He also invented an apparatus to measure the mass of the Earth. He has been called both the father of seismology and the father of magnetometry
May 1 Johann Gerhard Reinhard Andreae an Hanoverian natural scientist, chemist, geologist, court pharmacist and alchemist in the Age of Enlightenment. Internationally noted as a polymath, he was known throughout Europe particularly for his extensive natural history collections and for his pioneering and influential scientific work on soil and their uses for modern agriculture. He was a friend of many of the great scientists of the day, such as Benjamin Franklin, Pieter van Musschenbroek and George Shaw. The genus Andreaea, the type genus of the family Andreaeaceae of mosses, was named in his honour by his friend, the botanist Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart. Andreae was also noted as a major philanthropist in Hanover
May 3 Martin Gerbert born at Horb am Neckar, Württemberg, on the 12th of August 1720.
May 7 Pietro Nardini an Italian composer and violinist.
May 7 Johan Zoutman a Dutch naval figure and Rear Admiral who fought at the Battle of Dogger Bank in the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. Zoutman also fought in the American Revolutionary War
May 9 Mikhail Krechetnikov a Russian military commander and General of Infantry. He was the younger brother of Piotr Kretchetnikov
May 9 Auguste Marie Henri Picot de Dampierre a French general during the time of the French Revolution. He served in many of the early battles of the French Revolutionary Wars, and was killed in action in 1793. For him, the name Dampierre is among those inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe
May 18 Timur Shah Durrani the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the second and eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani
May 20 Charles Bonnet born at Geneva, of a French family driven into the region by the religious persecution in the 16th century.
May 23 William Hudson (botanist) a British botanist and apothecary based in London. His main work was Flora Anglica, published in 1762. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1761
May 28 Anton Friedrich Büsching a German geographer, historian, educator and theologian. His Erdbeschreibung was the first geographical work of any scientific merit. He also did significant work on behalf of education
May 29 John Webber an English artist who accompanied Captain Cook on his third Pacific expedition. He is best known for his images of Australasia, Hawaii and Alaska
Jun 11 William Robertson (historian) a Scottish historian, minister in the Church of Scotland, and Principal of the University of Edinburgh. "The thirty years during which presided over the University perhaps represent the highest point in its history."
Jun 13 Jean Baptiste Meusnier a French mathematician, engineer and Revolutionary general. He is best known for Meusnier's theorem on the curvature of surfaces, which he formulated while he was at the École Royale du Génie. He also discovered the helicoid. He worked with Lavoisier on the decomposition of water and the evolution of hydrogen
Jun 26 Karl Philipp Moritz a German author, editor and essayist of the Sturm und Drang, late enlightenment, and classicist periods, influencing early German Romanticism as well. He led a life as a hatter's apprentice, teacher, journalist, literary critic, professor of art and linguistics, and member of both of Berlin's academies
Jun 26 Gilbert White a "parson-naturalist", a pioneering English naturalist and ornithologist. He remained unmarried and a curate all his life. He is best known for his Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne
Jun 27 Johann August Ephraim Goeze a German zoologist from Aschersleben.
Jul 4 Antoine-Marin Lemierre a French dramatist and poet.
Jul 5 Alexander Roslin a Swedish portrait painter who worked in Scania, Bayreuth, Paris, Italy, and Petersburg, primarily for members of aristocratic families. He combined insightful psychological portrayal with a skillful representation of fabrics and jewels. In his choice of style and lustrous, shimmering colors Alexander Roslin exemplifies Rococo. He lived in France from 1752 until 1793, a period that spanned most of his career. Rococo artists opted for a more jocular, elegant and ornate style, characterized by lightness, elegance and graceful approach to art and architecture. The painting by Roslin depicting Jeanne Sophie de Vignerot du Plessis, Countess of Egmont Pignatelli, was bought by the Minneapolis Institute of Art in 2006 for US$ 3 million
Jul 7 Maria Antonia Branconi the official royal mistress of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between 1766 and 1777. She was a friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Branconi was by her contemporaries known as the most beautiful woman in Germany
Jul 8 Joseph Agricol Viala a child hero in the French Revolutionary Army.
Jul 13 Jean-Paul Marat a physician, political theorist and scientist best known for his career in France as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution. His journalism became renowned for its fierce tone, uncompromising stance toward the new leaders and institutions of the revolution, and advocacy of basic human rights for the poorest members of society
Jul 14 Jacques Cathelineau a French Vendéan insurrection leader during the French Revolution. His grandson, Henri de Cathelineau, was an officer in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War
Jul 17 Charlotte Corday a figure of the French Revolution. In 1793, she was executed under the guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible, through his role as a politician and journalist, for the more radical course the Revolution had taken. More specifically, he played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was memorialized in a celebrated painting by Jacques-Louis David which shows Marat after Corday had stabbed him to death in his bathtub. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave Corday the posthumous nickname l'ange de l'assassinat
Jul 19 Stanisław Lubomirski (1704–1793) a Polish noble and magnate.
Jul 21 Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux a French naval officer, explorer and colonial governor. He is perhaps best known for his exploration of the Australian coast in 1792, while searching for the La Pérouse expedition. Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux is commonly referred to simply as Bruni d'Entrecasteaux or Bruny d'Entrecasteaux, which is a compound surname
Jul 23 Roger Sherman an early American lawyer and politician, as well as a Founding Father of the United States. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic. He was the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson said of him: "That is Sherman, of Connecticut, a man who never said a foolish thing in his life."
Jul 26 Alessandro Besozzi an Italian composer and virtuoso oboist. He was a member of the ducal Guardia Irlandese from 1714, a hautboy band created by Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma in 1702, where he worked with his father Cristoforo Besozzi and his brothers Giuseppe and Paolo Girolamo Besozzi. After leaving the company on 20 April 1731, he worked in Turin with his brother Paolo Girolamo at the court of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia