Died in 1796

Jan 1 Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde now principally associated with determinant theory in mathematics. He was born in Paris, and died there
Jan 5 Samuel Huntington (statesman) a jurist, statesman, and Patriot in the American Revolution from Connecticut. As a delegate to the Continental Congress, he signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He also served as President of the Continental Congress from 1779 to 1781, chief justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court from 1784 to 1785, and the 18th Governor of Connecticut from 1786 until his death
Jan 13 John Anderson (natural philosopher) a Scottish natural philosopher and liberal educator at the forefront of the application of science to technology in the industrial revolution, and of the education and advancement of working men and women.
Jan 29 Bernardino da Ucria a Sicilian friar and botanist.
Feb 8 John Sibthorp an English botanist.
Feb 17 James Macpherson a Scottish writer, poet, literary collector and politician, known as the "translator" of the Ossian cycle of poems.
Feb 25 Samuel Seabury (bishop) the first American Episcopal bishop, the second Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, USA, and the first Bishop of Connecticut. He had been a leading Loyalist in New York City during the American Revolution
Mar 1 Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz a Swedish architect and civil servant. Adelcrantz's style developed from a rococo influenced by Carl Hårleman, the leading architect in Sweden in the early years of his career, to a classical idiom influenced by the stylistic developments in France in the mid-to-late 18th century. As överintendent, he headed the royal and public building works from 1767 until his retirement in 1795
Mar 6 Guillaume Thomas François Raynal a French writer and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment.
Mar 10 William Chambers (architect) a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London. Among his best-known works are Somerset House, London, and the pagoda at Kew. Chambers was a founder member of the Royal Academy
Mar 19 Stephen Storace an English composer. His sister was the famous opera singer Nancy Storace. He was born in London in the Parish of St Marylebone to an English mother and Italian father. Relatively little is known through direct records of his life, and most details are known second-hand through the memoirs of his contemporaries Michael Kelly, the actor John Bannister, and the oboist William Thomas Parke
Mar 26 François de Charette a French Royalist soldier, and politician. He was one of the leaders of the bloody events termed the "Revolt in the Vendée". His relative Athanase-Charles-Marie Charette de la Contrie was a noted military leader
Mar 30 Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt the mother of King Ludwig I of Bavaria.
Apr 2 Ulrika Pasch a Swedish painter and miniaturist. She was one of few female artists known in Scandinavia before the 19th century. Pasch was a self-supporting professional artist and the first female member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. She was made a member in 1773, the year the academy was founded
Apr 5 Louis des Balbes de Berton de Crillon duc de Mahon the 4th Duke of Crillon and 1st Duke of Mahon. He became a soldier at the age of 16 and served with distinction in the French army before transferring to the army of Spain, which was allied with France for much of the 18th century. By the end of his life he had risen to the highest military rank in Spain and it was said that he had served in 68 engagements. His most famous achievement was the successful invasion of Minorca in 1781, in which he defeated a British garrison and returned the island to Spain, although his efforts the following year to recapture Gibraltar from the British were a notable failure
Apr 9 Frederick Albert Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg a German prince of the House of Ascania and Reigning prince of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg from 1765 to 1796.
Apr 18 Johan Wilcke a Swedish physicist.
Apr 23 Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder a German satirical and humorous writer.
Apr 26 Paul Dietrich Giseke a German botanist, physician, teacher and librarian.
May 1 Alexandre Guy Pingré a French canon regular, astronomer and naval geographer.
May 6 Adolph Freiherr Knigge a German writer, Freemason, and a leading member of the Order of the Illuminati.
May 8 Amédée Emmanuel François Laharpe fought in the armies of the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars, led a division in Italy under Napoleon Bonaparte, and died after being hit by friendly fire.
May 12 Johann Uz born at Ansbach.
May 21 Alexei Ivanovich Belsky a Russian painter. He was part of the "Belsky Dynasty" of painters of the Eighteenth Century and a teacher at the Imperial Academy of Arts. He specialized in landscapes, allegories and historical subjects
May 29 Carl Fredrik Pechlin a Swedish politician and demagogue, son of the Holstein minister at Stockholm, Johan Pechlin, and brother of Johanna Lohm. After moving to Sweden at age six, he was educated in Sweden, and entered the Swedish army. He rose to the rank of major-general, but became famous by being the type par excellence of the corrupt and egoistic Swedish parliamentarian of the final period of the Age of Liberty; he received for many years the sobriquet of 'General of the Riksdag'
Jun 8 Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois a French actor, dramatist, essayist, and revolutionary. He was a member of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror and, while he saved Madame Tussaud from the Guillotine, he administered the execution of more than 2,000 people in the city of Lyon
Jun 8 Felice Giardini an Italian composer and violinist.
Jun 11 Samuel Whitbread (1720–1796) an English brewer and Member of Parliament. In 1742, he established a brewery that in 1799 became Whitbread & Co Ltd
Jun 11 Nathaniel Gorham a politician and merchant from Massachusetts. He was a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, and for six months served as the presiding officer of that body. He also attended the Constitutional Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Jun 16 Charles of Saxony Duke of Courland a German prince from the House of Wettin and Duke of Courland.
Jun 21 Richard Gridley born in Boston, Massachusetts. He was a soldier and engineer who served for the British Army during the French and Indian Wars and for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War
Jun 26 David Rittenhouse a renowned American astronomer, inventor, clockmaker, mathematician, surveyor, scientific instrument craftsman and public official. Rittenhouse was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the first director of the United States Mint
Jun 30 Abraham Yates Jr. an American lawyer and civil servant from Albany, New York.
Jul 2 Jan Krzysztof Kluk a Polish naturalist agronomist and entomologist.
Jul 8 Adam Naruszewicz a Polish nobleman from an impoverished aristocratic family, poet, historian, dramatist, translator, publicist, Jesuit and titular Bishop of Smolensk and bishop of Łuck.
Jul 15 Domenico Lorenzo Ponziani an 18th-century Italian law professor, priest, chess player, composer and theoretician. He is best known today for his chess writing
Jul 16 George Howard (British Army officer) a British military officer and politician. After commanding the 3rd Regiment of Foot at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745 during the War of the Austrian Succession and after commanding that regiment again at the Battle of Falkirk Muir and the Battle of Culloden during the Jacobite Rebellion, he returned to the continent and fought at the Battle of Lauffeld. He went on to command a brigade at the Battle of Warburg during the Seven Years' War. He subsequently became the Governor of Minorca
Jul 21 Philip Carteret a British naval officer and explorer who participated in two of the Royal Navy's circumnavigation expeditions in 1764-66 and 1766-69.
Jul 21 Robert Burns a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and a light Scots dialect, accessible to an audience beyond Scotland. He also wrote in standard English, and in these writings his political or civil commentary is often at its bluntest
Aug 1 Sir Robert Pigot 2nd Baronet a British Army officer during the American Revolutionary War.
Aug 6 David Allan (painter) a Scottish painter and illustrator, best known for historical subjects and genre works. He was born at Alloa in central Scotland. On leaving Foulis's academy of painting at Glasgow , after seven years' successful study, he obtained the patronage of Lord Cathcart and of Erskine of Mar, on whose estate he had been born. Erskine made it possible for him to travel to Rome , where he remained until 1777, studying under Gavin Hamilton and copying the old masters
Aug 8 Franz Anton Maulbertsch an Austrian painter and engraver, one of the most renowned exponents of roccoco painting in the German region.
Aug 31 John McKinly an American physician and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a veteran of the French and Indian War, served in the Delaware General Assembly, was the first elected President of Delaware, and for a time was a member of the Federalist Party
Sep 19 François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers a French general of the Revolutionary Wars.
Oct 7 Thomas Reid a religiously trained Scottish philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic." He was the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense and played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment. The early part of his life was spent in Aberdeen and he graduated from the University of Aberdeen. He began his career as a Minister of the Church of Scotland but ceased to be a Minister when he was given a professorship at King's College, Aberdeen in 1752. He obtained his doctorate and wrote An Inquiry Into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense. He and his colleagues founded the 'Aberdeen Philosophical Society' which was popularly known as the 'Wise Club'. Shortly after the publication of his first book, he was given the prestigious Professorship of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow when he was called to replace Adam Smith. He resigned from this position in 1781, after which he prepared his university lectures for publication in two books: Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man and Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind. Reid was buried at Blackfriars Church in the grounds of Glasgow College and when the university moved to Gilmorehill in the west of Glasgow, his tombstone was inserted in the main building. See separate article on Thomas Reid's tombstone
Oct 10 Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel queen of Denmark between 1752 and 1766, second consort of king Frederick V of Denmark and Norway, mother of the prince-regent Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and herself de facto regent 1772–1784, King Christian VIII of Denmark descends from her.
Oct 16 Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia King of Sardinia from 1773 until his death. Although he was politically conservative, he carried out numerous administrative reforms until declaring war on revolutionary France in 1792. He was the father of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia
Oct 16 Antoine-Joseph Pernety a French writer. At various times he was a Benedictine, and librarian of Frederic the Great of Prussia. Together with the Polish Count Tadeusz Grabianka, also influenced by the Christian mysticism of Swedenborg he founded in 1760 the secret society of ‘Rite hermétique’ or Illuminati of Avignon
Oct 19 Michel de Beaupuy a French general of the Revolution.
Oct 20 Gábor Dayka a Hungarian poet.