Died in 1797

Jan 13 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern Queen of Prussia from 1740 to 1786 as the spouse of Frederick the Great. By birth, she was a Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. She was also the longest serving queen of Prussia
Jan 28 Antin Holovaty a prominent Zaporozhian Cossack leader who after the Zaporozhian Sich's destruction was a key figure in the formation of the Black Sea Cossack Host and their later resettlement to the Kuban Region of Russia.
Feb 8 Princess Joséphine of Lorraine a princess of the House of Lorraine and by marriage the Princess of Carignan. She was the paternal grandmother of King Charles Albert of Sardinia, from whom the modern royal house of Italy descends
Feb 8 Johann Friedrich Doles a German composer and pupil of J.S. Bach
Feb 11 Antoine Dauvergne a French composer and violinist.
Feb 17 Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony a daughter of King Augustus III of Poland and his wife Maria Josepha of Austria who became Electress of Bavaria.
Feb 20 Domenico Merlini an Italian-Polish architect whose work was mostly in the classical style.
Feb 22 Baron Münchhausen a German nobleman and a famous recounter of tall tales. He joined the Russian military and took part in two campaigns against the Ottoman Turks. Upon returning home, Münchhausen is said to have told a number of outrageously farfetched stories about his adventures
Feb 23 Louis-Joseph Charlier a French statesman during the French Revolution, an early supporter of the Montagnard faction of the National Convention, but ultimately one of many turncoats to betray the régime of the French Terror. He is sometimes referred to as Charles
Mar 1 Juan Manuel Olivares a Venezuelan composer from the Colonial era.
Mar 2 Horace Walpole an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
Mar 3 Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec a Breton explorer and French naval officer.
Mar 6 William Hodges an English painter. He was a member of James Cook's second voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and is best known for the sketches and paintings of locations he visited on that voyage, including Table Bay, Tahiti, Easter Island, and the Antarctic
Mar 7 Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey a German author who wrote in French. Besides his activities as a journalist or editor, he contributed to the French Encyclopédie. He died in Berlin
Mar 14 Elizabeth Smith-Stanley Countess of Derby an English peeress. As the eligible eldest daughter of the 6th Duke of Hamilton, she married the 12th Earl of Derby in 1774, giving birth to three children. Lady Derby was popular among society and considered a leader of fashion alongside the Duchess of Devonshire. Five years after the marriage, Lady Derby embarked in a very public affair with the 3rd Duke of Dorset. She eventually separated from her husband, which caused a scandal and led to her effective exile from society, especially after it was learned that she would not be marrying the Duke. Lady Derby moved abroad, only returning once her husband attracted embarrassing press attention for his very public relationship with the actress Elizabeth Farren, whom he married soon after Lady Derby's death in 1797
Mar 26 James Hutton a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist. He originated the theory of uniformitarianism—a fundamental principle of geology—which explains the features of the Earth's crust by means of natural processes over geologic time. Hutton's work established geology as a proper science, and thus he is often referred to as the "Father of Modern Geology"
Mar 31 Olaudah Equiano a prominent African in London, a freed slave who supported the British movement to end the slave trade. His autobiography, published in 1789 and attracting wide attention, was considered highly influential in gaining passage of the Slave Trade Act 1807, which ended the African trade for Britain and its colonies
Mar 31 Betty Washington Lewis the younger sister of George Washington and the only sister to live to adulthood. She was the first daughter of Augustine Washington and Mary Ball Washington. She is considered a "founding mother" of America
May 7 Jedediah Strutt a hosier and cotton spinner from Belper, England.
May 17 Michel-Jean Sedaine a French dramatist and librettist, especially noted for his librettos for opéras comiques, in which he took an important and influential role in the advancement of the genre from the period of Charles-Simon Favart to the beginning of the Revolution.
May 25 John Griffin 4th Baron Howard de Walden a British nobleman and soldier. Born John Whitwell, he served as a junior officer with the Pragmatic Army in the Netherlands and Germany during the War of the Austrian Succession. After changing his surname to Griffin in 1749, he commanded a brigade of at least four battalions at the Battle of Corbach in July 1760 during the Seven Years' War. He also commanded a brigade at the Battle of Warburg and was wounded at the Battle of Kloster Kampen
May 27 François-Noël Babeuf a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period. His newspaper Le tribun du people was best known for his advocacy for the poor and calling for a popular revolt against the Directory, the government of France. He was a leading advocate for democracy, the abolition of private property and the equality of results. He angered the authorities who were clamping down hard on their radical enemies. In spite of the efforts of his Jacobin friends to save him, Babeuf was executed for his role in the Conspiracy of the Equals
May 28 Anton Raaff a German tenor from Gelsdorf near Bonn.
Jun 13 Christian Jensen Lofthuus a prominent farmer from Risør, Norway. Between 1786-87, he led a large peasant revolt in Norway which became known as the Lofthusreisingen
Jun 13 Samuel-Auguste Tissot a notable 18th century Swiss physician.
Jun 15 Christen Friis Rottbøll a Danish physician and botanist and pupil of Carolus Linnaeus.
Jun 17 Mohammad Khan Qajar the chief of the Qajar tribe, succeeding his father Mohammad Hassan Khan, who was killed on the orders of Adil Shah. He became the Emperor/Shah of Persia in 1794 and established the Qajar dynasty. He was succeeded by his nephew, Fat′h Ali Shah Qajar
Jun 21 Andreas Peter Bernstorff a Danish statesman and politician. He was a Danish minister, father of Christian Günther von Bernstorff, and a guardian of civil and political liberty
Jun 28 Bernhard Rode a Prussian artist and engraver well known for portraying historical scenes and allegorical works. He knew most of the central figures in the Berlin Enlightenment as Friedrich Nicolai and Gotthold Lessing, and the philosophical and political discussions of the Berlin Philosophs informed much of the subject matter of his artistic work. His paintings include several works depicting, in various guises, the King of Prussia Frederick the Great, who ruled the Prussia during much of Rode's lifetime. Rode was director of the Berlin Academy of the Arts from 1783 until his death in 1797
Jun 28 Pietro Verri an Italian philosopher, economist, historian and writer.
Jul 9 Edmund Burke an Irish statesman born in Dublin; author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who, after moving to England, served for many years in the House of Commons of Great Britain as a member of the Whig party.
Jul 11 Ienăchiță Văcărescu a Wallachian Romanian poet, historian, philologist, and boyar belonging to the Văcărescu family. A polyglot, he was able to speak Ancient and Modern Greek, Old Church Slavonic, Arabic, Persian, French, German, Italian, and Ottoman Turkish
Jul 30 Johann Ludwig Christian Koelle a German physician and botanist born in Münchberg.
Aug 3 Jeffery Amherst 1st Baron Amherst Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst KCB served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.
Aug 10 Alexei Senyavin an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy, son of Naum Senyavin.
Aug 22 Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser an Austrian field marshal during the French Revolutionary Wars. Although he fought in the Seven Years' War, the War of the Bavarian Succession, and mounted several successful campaigns in the Rhineland in the initial years of the French Revolutionary Wars, he is probably most remembered for his unsuccessful operations against Napoleon Bonaparte during the 1796 campaign in Italy
Aug 25 Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai a French novelist, playwright, journalist, politician, and diplomat.
Aug 25 Thomas Chittenden an important figure in the founding of Vermont, as the President of the Vermont Republic and the first Governor of the state of Vermont.
Aug 29 Joseph Wright of Derby None
Sep 10 Mary Wollstonecraft an eighteenth-century English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman , in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason
Sep 11 Pierre Jélyotte a French operatic tenor, particularly associated with works by Rameau, Lully, Campra, Mondonville and Destouches.
Sep 19 Lazare Hoche a French soldier who rose to be general of the Revolutionary army. He is best known for his defeat of Royalist forces in Brittany
Oct 9 Vilna Gaon a Talmudist, halakhist, kabbalist, and the foremost leader of mitnagdic Jewry of the past few centuries. He is commonly referred to in Hebrew as ha-Gaon he-Chasid mi-Vilna, "the saintly genius from Vilnius"
Oct 10 Agui a Manchu noble general for the Qing dynasty. As the only son of Akdun, he was a scion of a noble family who led a number of important Manchu military operations, including several of the "Ten Great Campaigns"
Nov 14 Januarius Zick a painter and architect. He is considered to be one of the main masters of the Late-Baroque
Nov 14 Ivan Shuvalov called the Maecenas of the Russian Enlightenment and the first Russian Minister of Education. Russia's first theatre, university, and academy of arts were instituted with his active participation
Nov 16 Frederick William II of Prussia King of Prussia, from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg and the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. Pleasure-loving and indolent, he is seen as the antithesis to his predecessor, Frederick Under his reign, Prussia was weakened internally and externally, and he failed to deal adequately with the challenges to the existing order posed by the French Revolution. His religious policies were directed against the Enlightenment and aimed at restoring a traditional Protestantism. However, he was a patron of the arts and responsible for the construction of some notable buildings, among them the Brandenburger Tor in Berlin
Nov 18 Jacques-Alexandre Laffon de Ladebat one of the most important shipbuilders and merchants of the port of Bordeaux in the late 18th century. His son, André-Daniel Laffon de Ladebat , succeeded him, then became involved in politics in the French Revolution in 1789
Nov 29 Samuel Langdon an American Congregational clergyman and educator. After serving as pastor in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he was appointed president of Harvard University in 1774. He held that post until 1780
Dec 11 Richard Brocklesby born at Minehead, Somerset.