Died in 1798

Jan 4 Giuseppe Giordani an Italian composer, mainly of opera.
Jan 5 William Flackton an 18th-century bookseller, publisher, amateur organist, viola player and composer. He is perhaps best known today for his compositions for the viola
Jan 11 Heraclius II of Georgia a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi Dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798. In the contemporary Persian sources he is referred to as Erekli Khan , while Russians knew him as Irakly. His name is frequently transliterated in a Latinized form Heraclius because both names Erekle and Irakli are Georgian versions of this Greek name
Jan 20 Christian Cannabich a German violinist, composer, and Kapellmeister of the Classical era. A composer of some 200 works, he continued the legacy of Johann Stamitz and helped turn the Mannheim orchestra into what Charles Burney described as "the most complete and best disciplined in Europe.". The orchestra was particularly noted for the carefully graduated crescendos and diminuendos characteristic of the Mannheim school. Together with Stamitz and the other composers of the Mannheim court, he helped develop the orchestral texture that paved the way for the orchestral treatment of the First Viennese School
Jan 22 Matija Antun Relković a Croatian writer. Born in the village of Davor in Slavonia as a son of a Military Frontier officer, Relković too enlisted in the Austrian army at the age of 16. He fought in the Seven Years' War until he was captured by Prussians in Wrocław , and spent a few years of rather "relaxed" imprisonment at Frankfurt. Relković's prison years became his Lehrjahre, his educational period: a voracious but unsystematic reader, he studied many works by leading Enlightenment writers , as well as Polish poet Jan Kochanowski's didactic epic Satir- which became the model for his most famous work. After the release, Relković spent a few more years on war campaigns , but eventually sated and bored with military life, he asked and got pension from Austrian emperor Joseph II in the rank of captain, as well as the title of hereditary noble. Having spent the rest of his life as a writer and social reformer, Relković died in Vinkovci, Croatia
Jan 22 Lewis Morris an American landowner and developer from Morrisania, New York. He signed the U.S. Declaration of Independence as a delegate to the Continental Congress from New York
Jan 28 Christian Gottlob Neefe a German opera composer and conductor.
Feb 12 Stanisław August Poniatowski the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He remains a controversial figure in Polish history. Recognized as a great patron of the arts and sciences and a supporter of progressive reforms, he is also remembered as the last king of the Commonwealth whose election was marred by serious irregularities, and the one who failed to prevent Poland's destruction
Feb 13 Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder a German jurist and writer. With Ludwig Tieck, he was a co-founder of German Romanticism
Feb 25 Louis Jules Mancini Mazarini a French diplomat and writer. He was the sixth member elected to occupy seat 4 of the Académie française in 1742. In English, his title is written, the Duke of Nivernais
Mar 9 Margravine Friederike of Brandenburg-Schwedt Duchess of Württemberg and ancestor to many European royals of the 19th and 20th century.
Mar 16 Aloys Blumauer an Austrian poet.
Apr 11 Karl Wilhelm Ramler a German poet.
Apr 14 Henry Mowat an officer of the Royal Navy commanding ships in northern New England during the American Revolutionary War. He was the son of Captain Patrick Mowat of the post ship HMS Dolphin. He was born in Scotland and went to sea at the age of 18
Apr 14 David Ruhnken a Dutch classical scholar of German origin.
Apr 29 Nikolaus Poda von Neuhaus an Austrian entomologist born in Vienna.
May 2 Martinus Houttuyn a Dutch naturalist.
May 10 George Vancouver an English officer of the British Royal Navy, best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon. He also explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia
May 19 William Byron 5th Baron Byron the poet George Gordon Byron's great uncle. He was the son of William Byron, 4th Baron Byron and his wife Hon. Frances Berkeley, a descendant of John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton
May 25 Kazimierz Nestor Sapieha a Polish-Lithuanian noble and one the creators of the Constitution of May 3.
May 25 Asmus Jacob Carstens a Danish-German painter, one of the most committed artists of German Neoclassicism. His career was erratic, partly because of his difficult personality, and the majority of his large projects were left incomplete, or subsequently destroyed. Much of what survives is in the form of drawings, many using "a schematic, pale colouring as a timid and humble accessory to the dominating figure-drawing", that were planned for large fresco commissions that never materialized
Jun 4 Lord Edward FitzGerald an Irish aristocrat and revolutionary who died of wounds received while resisting arrest on a charge of treason.
Jun 4 Giacomo Casanova an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice. His autobiography, Histoire de ma vie , is regarded as one of the most authentic sources of the customs and norms of European social life during the 18th century
Jun 22 François Louis Bourdon a French politician of the Revolutionary period and procureur at the parlement of Paris.
Jun 24 Rigas Feraios a Greek writer, political thinker and revolutionary, active in the Modern Greek Enlightenment, remembered as a Greek national hero, a victim of the Balkan uprising against the Ottoman Empire and a forerunner of the Greek War of Independence.
Jun 24 Maria Christina Duchess of Teschen the fourth daughter and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was Governor of the Austrian Netherlands from 1781 until 1793. She was an older sister of Marie Antoinette
Jun 25 Thomas Sandby an English draughtsman, watercolour artist, architect and teacher. In 1743 he was appointed private secretary to tthe Duke of Cumberland, who later appointed him Deputy Ranger of Windsor Great Park, where he was responsible for considerable landscaping work
Jul 6 Adrien Duport a French politician, and lawyer.
Jul 15 Gaetano Pugnani born in Turin. He trained on the violin under Giovanni Battista Somis. In 1752, Pugnani became the first violinist of the Royal Chapel of Turin. Then he went on a large tour that granted him great fame for his extraordinary skill on the violin. In 1754, he was very well received at the Concert Spirituel in Paris, but in 1768 he had an even more successful musical encounter in London, directing the King's Theatre from 1767 to 1769
Jul 17 Henry Joy McCracken an Irish industrialist and a founding member of the Society of the United Irishmen.
Jul 21 François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix Count of Clerfayt a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years' War. Later in his military career, he led Austrian troops in the war against Ottoman Turkey. During the French Revolutionary Wars he saw extensive fighting and rose to the rank of Field Marshal
Aug 1 François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers the French commander in the Battle of the Nile, in which the French Revolutionary Navy was defeated by Royal Navy forces under Admiral Horatio Nelson. The British victory helped to ensure their naval supremacy throughout the Napoleonic Wars. He was also a Freemason in the La Bonne Foi lodge at Montauban
Aug 2 Aristide Aubert Du Petit Thouars a French naval officer, and a hero of the Battle of Aboukir, where he died.
Aug 15 Edward Waring an English mathematician who was born in Old Heath , Shropshire, England and died in Pontesbury, Shropshire, England. He entered Magdalene College, Cambridge as a sizar and became Senior wrangler in 1757. He was elected a Fellow of Magdalene and in 1760 Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, holding the chair until his death. He made the assertion known as Waring's problem without proof in his writings Meditationes Algebraicae. Waring was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1763 and awarded the Copley Medal in 1784
Aug 21 James Wilson one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence. Wilson was elected twice to the Continental Congress, where he represented Pennsylvania, and was a major force in drafting the United States Constitution. A leading legal theorist, he was one of the six original justices appointed by George Washington to the Supreme Court of the United States
Aug 24 Thomas Alcock (clergyman) a clergyman in the Church of England, a pluralist and an author.
Aug 25 Mikiel'Ang Grima a Maltese surgeon during the times of the Knights of Malta. He was particularly adept at traumatic surgery. Grima was considered to be one of the best surgeons of his time, as he was able to open bladders and remove stones in only two and a half minutes
Aug 25 Christian August Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont a general in the Austrian service, and last commander and Field Marshal of the Portuguese land army.
Sep 7 Peter Frederik Suhm a Danish-Norwegian historian.
Sep 21 George Read (U.S. statesman) an American lawyer and politician from New Castle in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a Continental Congressman from Delaware, a delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, President of Delaware, and a member of the Federalist Party, who served as U.S. Senator from Delaware and Chief Justice of Delaware
Oct 5 Antoine de Chézy a French hydraulics engineer. He is known for the Chézy formula, which concerned the velocity of pipe flow, and in modified form he used for open channel flow as well. He died in 1798 after being director of the École nationale des ponts et chaussées for less than a year. His son was the orientalist Antoine-Léonard de Chézy
Oct 22 Joseph Sulkowski a Polish captain in the French Revolutionary Army and friend and aide de camp to Bonaparte. He also became friends with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne. His name is engraved on the Arc de Triomphe, on the 28th column, as SULKOSKY
Nov 2 Charles de Wailly a French architect and urbanist, and furniture designer, one of the principals in the Neoclassical revival of the Antique. His major work was the Théâtre de l'Odéon for the Comédie-Française. In his designs, de Wailly showed a predilection for the perfect figure, the circle
Nov 11 Friedrich Karl von Moser a German jurist, state journalist and a politician.
Nov 15 Angelo Maria Amorevoli a leading Italian tenor in Baroque opera.
Nov 19 Wolfe Tone regarded as the father of Irish republicanism. He was captured by British forces at Lough Swilly in Donegal and taken prisoner. Before he was to be executed, it is believed that Wolfe Tone attempted suicide. He subsequently died from mortal wounds eight days afterwards, thus avoiding being hanged as a convicted traitor to the British Crown for his involvement in the 1798 Irish Rebellion
Nov 21 Gabriel Lenkiewicz a Polish–Lithuanian Jesuit priest, and Temporary Vicar General of the Society of Jesus from 1785 until 1798, at a time when, being suppressed in all Catholic countries, the Society of Jesus was still surviving in Russia.
Dec 4 Luigi Galvani an Italian physician, physicist and philosopher who lived and died in Bologna. In 1780, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by an electrical spark.:67–71 This was one of the first forays into the study of bioelectricity, a field that still studies the electrical patterns and signals of the nervous system
Dec 9 Johann Reinhold Forster a Reformed pastor and naturalist of partially Scottish descent who made contributions to the early ornithology of Europe and North America. He is best known as the naturalist on James Cook's second Pacific voyage, where he was accompanied by his son Georg Forster. These expeditions promoted the career of Johann Reinhold Forster and the findings became the bedrock of colonial professionalism and helped set the stage for the future development of anthropology and ethnology. They also laid the framework for general concern about the impact that alteration of the physical environment for European economic expansion would have on exotic societies
Dec 16 Thomas Pennant a Welsh naturalist, traveller, writer and antiquarian. He was born and lived his whole life at his family estate, Downing Hall near Whitford, Flintshire in Wales